Regulation of SRC-3 localization and dynamics by phosphorylation during ERα-dependent transcriptional activation

Pasini, Luigi (2008) Regulation of SRC-3 localization and dynamics by phosphorylation during ERα-dependent transcriptional activation, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biologia e fisiologia cellulare, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/681.
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Transcription is controlled by promoter-selective transcriptional factors (TFs), which bind to cis-regulatory enhancers elements, termed hormone response elements (HREs), in a specific subset of genes. Regulation by these factors involves either the recruitment of coactivators or corepressors and direct interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery (1). Hormone-activated nuclear receptors (NRs) are well characterized transcriptional factors (2) that bind to the promoters of their target genes and recruit primary and secondary coactivator proteins which possess many enzymatic activities required for gene expression (1,3,4). In the present study, using single-cell high-resolution fluorescent microscopy and high throughput microscopy (HTM) coupled to computational imaging analysis, we investigated transcriptional regulation controlled by the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), in terms of large scale chromatin remodeling and interaction with the associated coactivator SRC-3 (Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3), a member of p160 family (28) primary coactivators. ERalpha is a steroid-dependent transcriptional factor (16) that belongs to the NRs superfamily (2,3) and, in response to the hormone 17-ß estradiol (E2), regulates transcription of distinct target genes involved in development, puberty, and homeostasis (8,16). ERalpha spends most of its lifetime in the nucleus and undergoes a rapid (within minutes) intranuclear redistribution following the addition of either agonist or antagonist (17,18,19). We designed a HeLa cell line (PRL-HeLa), engineered with a chromosomeintegrated reporter gene array (PRL-array) containing multicopy hormone response-binding elements for ERalpha that are derived from the physiological enhancer/promoter region of the prolactin gene. Following GFP-ER transfection of PRL-HeLa cells, we were able to observe in situ ligand dependent (i) recruitment to the array of the receptor and associated coregulators, (ii) chromatin remodeling, and (iii) direct transcriptional readout of the reporter gene. Addition of E2 causes a visible opening (decondensation) of the PRL-array, colocalization of RNA Polymerase II, and transcriptional readout of the reporter gene, detected by mRNA FISH. On the contrary, when cells were treated with an ERalpha antagonist (Tamoxifen or ICI), a dramatic condensation of the PRL-array was observed, displacement of RNA Polymerase II, and complete decreasing in the transcriptional FISH signal. All p160 family coactivators (28) colocalize with ERalpha at the PRL-array. Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3/AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM1) is a p160 family member and a known oncogenic protein (4,34). SRC-3 is regulated by a variety of posttranslational modifications, including methylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation (4,35). These events have been shown to be important for its interaction with other coactivator proteins and NRs and for its oncogenic potential (37,39). A number of extracellular signaling molecules, like steroid hormones, growth factors and cytokines, induce SRC-3 phosphorylation (40). These actions are mediated by a wide range of kinases, including extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1-2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 MAPK, and IkB kinases (IKKs) (41,42,43). Here, we report SRC-3 to be a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, whose cellular localization is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with ERalpha. Using a combination of high throughput and fluorescence microscopy, we show that both chemical inhibition (with U0126) and siRNA downregulation of the MAP/ERK1/2 kinase (MEK1/2) pathway induce a cytoplasmic shift in SRC-3 localization, whereas stimulation by EGF signaling enhances its nuclear localization by inducing phosphorylation at T24, S857, and S860, known partecipants in the regulation of SRC-3 activity (39). Accordingly, the cytoplasmic localization of a non-phosphorylatable SRC-3 mutant further supports these results. In the presence of ERalpha, U0126 also dramatically reduces: hormone-dependent colocalization of ERalpha and SRC-3 in the nucleus; formation of ER-SRC-3 coimmunoprecipitation complex in cell lysates; localization of SRC-3 at the ER-targeted prolactin promoter array (PRL-array) and transcriptional activity. Finally, we show that SRC-3 can also function as a cotransporter, facilitating the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of estrogen receptor. While a wealth of studies have revealed the molecular functions of NRs and coregulators, there is a paucity of data on how these functions are spatiotemporally organized in the cellular context. Technically and conceptually, our findings have a new impact upon evaluating gene transcriptional control and mechanisms of action of gene regulators.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Pasini, Luigi
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
transcriptional coregulators p160 family coactivators src-3/aib1 estrogen receptor alpha nuclear receptors chromatin remodeling gene transcription high throughput microscopy human cancer
Data di discussione
3 Aprile 2008

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