Genetic characterization, population history and evolutionary medicine perspective in two native south american populations: Yanesha and Wichi

Yang Yao, Daniele (2011) Genetic characterization, population history and evolutionary medicine perspective in two native south american populations: Yanesha and Wichi, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biodiversità ed evoluzione - biodiversity and evolution, 23 Ciclo.
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Two Amerindian populations from the Peruvian Amazon (Yanesha) and from rural lowlands of the Argentinean Gran Chaco (Wichi) were analyzed. They represent two case study of the South American genetic variability. The Yanesha represent a model of population isolated for long-time in the Amazon rainforest, characterized by environmental and altitudinal stratifications. The Wichi represent a model of population living in an area recently colonized by European populations (the Criollos are the population of the admixed descendents), whose aim is to depict the native ancestral gene pool and the degree of admixture, in relation to the very high prevalence of Chagas disease. The methods used for the genotyping are common, concerning the Y chromosome markers (male lineage) and the mitochondrial markers (maternal lineage). The determination of the phylogeographic diagnostic polymorphisms was carried out by the classical techniques of PCR, restriction enzymes, sequencing and specific mini-sequencing. New method for the detection of the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi was developed by means of the nested PCR. The main results show patterns of genetic stratification in Yanesha forest communities, referable to different migrations at different times, estimated by Bayesian analyses. In particular Yanesha were considered as a population of transition between the Amazon basin and the Andean Cordillera, evaluating the potential migration routes and the separation of clusters of community in relation to different genetic bio-ancestry. As the Wichi, the gene pool analyzed appears clearly differentiated by the admixed sympatric Criollos, due to strict social practices (deeply analyzed with the support of cultural anthropological tools) that have preserved the native identity at a diachronic level. A pattern of distribution of the seropositivity in relation to the different phylogenetic lineages (the adaptation in evolutionary terms) does not appear, neither Amerindian nor European, but in relation to environmental and living conditions of the two distinct subpopulations.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Yang Yao, Daniele
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Yanesha Wichi Chagas Y-chromosome mtDNA phylogeography
Data di discussione
3 Maggio 2011

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