Sensors, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Precision Orchard Management (POM)

Bresilla, Kushtrim (2019) Sensors, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Precision Orchard Management (POM), [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze e tecnologie agrarie, ambientali e alimentari, 31 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/8980.
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Image/video processing for fruit detection in the tree using hard-coded feature extraction algorithms has shown high accuracy on fruit detection during recent years. While accurate, these approaches even with high-end hardware are still computationally intensive and too slow for real-time systems. This paper details the use of deep convolution neural networks architecture based on single-stage detectors. Using deep-learning techniques eliminates the need for hard-code specific features for specific fruit shapes, color and/or other attributes. This architecture takes the input image and divides into AxA grid, where A is a configurable hyper-parameter that defines the fineness of the grid. To each grid cell an image detection and localization algorithm is applied. Each of those cells is responsible to predict bounding boxes and confidence score for fruit (apple and pear in the case of this study) detected in that cell. We want this confidence score to be high if a fruit exists in a cell, otherwise to be zero, if no fruit is in the cell. More than 100 images of apple and pear trees were taken. Each tree image with approximately 50 fruits, that at the end resulted on more than 5000 images of apple and pear fruits each. Labeling images for training consisted on manually specifying the bounding boxes for fruits, where (x, y) are the center coordinates of the box and (w, h) are width and height. This architecture showed an accuracy of more than 90\% fruit detection. Based on correlation between number of visible fruits, detected fruits on one frame and the real number of fruits on one tree, a model was created to accommodate this error rate. Processing speed is higher than 20FPS which is fast enough for any grasping/harvesting robotic arm or other real-time applications.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Bresilla, Kushtrim
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Precision Agriculture; Smart Farming; Robotics; Artificial Intelligence; Sensors; Fruit Recognition; Orchard Navigation; Crop-load estimation; Tree canopy;
Data di discussione
29 Marzo 2019

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