Petrology and geochemistry of Lipari Island (Aeolian archipelago): constraints on magma genesis and evolution

Forni, Francesca (2011) Petrology and geochemistry of Lipari Island (Aeolian archipelago): constraints on magma genesis and evolution, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze della terra, 23 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/3785.
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A full set of geochemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data both on bulk-rock and mineral samples is provided for volcanic rocks representative of the whole stratigraphic succession of Lipari Island in the Aeolian archipelago. These data, together with petrographic observations and melt/fluid inclusion investigations from the literature, give outlines on the petrogenesis and evolution of magmas through the magmatic and eruptive history of Lipari. This is the result of nine successive Eruptive Epochs developing between 271 ka and historical times, as derived from recentmost volcanological and stratigraphic studies, combined with available radiometric ages and correlation of tephra layers and marine terrace deposits. These Eruptive Epochs are characterized by distinctive vents partly overlapping in space and time, mostly under control of the main regional tectonic trends (NNW-SSE, N-S and minor E-W). A large variety of lava flows, scoriaceous deposits, lava domes, coulees and pyroclastics are emplaced, ranging in composition through time from calcalkaline (CA) and high-K (HKCA) basaltic andesites to rhyolites. CA and HKCA basaltic andesitic to dacitic magmas were erupted between 271 and 81 ka (Eruptive Epochs 1-6) from volcanic edifices located along the western coast of the island (and subordinately the eastern Monterosa) and the M.Chirica and M.S.Angelo stratocones. These mafic to intermediate magmas mainly evolved through AFC and RAFC processes, involving fractionation of mafic phases, assimilation of wall rocks and mixing with newly injected mafic magmas. Following a 40 ka-long period of volcanic quiescence, the rhyolitic magmas were lately erupted from eruptive vents located in the southern and north-eastern sectors of Lipari between 40 ka and historical times (Eruptive Epochs 7-9). They are suggested to derive from the previous mafic to intermediate melts through AFC processes. During the early phases of rhyolitic magmatism (Eruptive Epochs 7-8), enclaves-rich rocks and banded pumices, ranging in composition from HKCA dacites to low-SiO2 rhyolites were erupted, representing the products of magma mixing between fresh mafic magmas and the fractionated rhyolitic melts. The interaction of mantle-derived magmas with the crust represents an essential process during the whole magmatic hystory of Lipari, and is responsible for the wide range of observed geochemical and isotopic variations. The crustal contribution was particularly important during the intermediate phases of activity of Lipari when the cordierite-bearing lavas were erupted from the M. S.Angelo volcano (Eruptive Epoch 5, 105 ka). These lavas are interpreted as the result of mixing and subsequent hybridization of mantle-derived magmas, akin to the ones characterizing the older phases of activity of Lipari (Eruptive Epochs 1-4), and crustal anatectic melts derived from dehydration-melting reactions of metapelites in the lower crust. A comparison between the adjacent islands of Lipari and Vulcano outlines that their mafic to intermediate magmas seem to be genetically connected and derive from a similar mantle source affected by different degrees of partial melting (and variable extent of crustal assimilation) producing either the CA magmas of Lipari (higher degrees) or the HKCA to SHO magmas of Vulcano (lower degrees). On a regional scale, the most primitive rocks (SiO2<56%, MgO>3.5%) of Lipari, Vulcano, Salina and Filicudi are suggested to derive from a similar MORB-like source, variably metasomatized by aqueous fluids coming from the slab and subordinately by the additions of sediments.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Forni, Francesca
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze della terra e dell'ambiente
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Geochemistry volcanology petrogenesis Lipari Aeolian archipelago
Data di discussione
27 Aprile 2011

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