Myc-mediated control of gene transcription in cancer cells

Gherardi, Samuele (2010) Myc-mediated control of gene transcription in cancer cells , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biologia cellulare, molecolare e industriale/cellular, molecular and industrial biology: progetto n. 1 Biologia e fisiologia cellulare, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2809.
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The Myc oncoproteins belong to a family of transcription factors composed by Myc, N-Myc and L-Myc. The most studied components of this family are Myc and N-Myc because their expressions are frequently deregulated in a wide range of cancers. These oncoproteins can act both as activators or repressors of gene transcription. As activators, they heterodimerize with Max (Myc associated X-factor) and the heterodimer recognizes and binds a specific sequence elements (E-Box) onto gene promoters recruiting histone acetylase and inducing transcriptional activation. Myc-mediated transcriptional repression is a quite debated issue. One of the first mechanisms defined for the Myc-mediated transcriptional repression consisted in the interaction of Myc-Max complex Sp1 and/or Miz1 transcription factors already bound to gene promoters. This interaction may interfere with their activation functions by recruiting co-repressors such as Dnmt3 or HDACs. Moreover, in the absence of , Myc may interfere with the Sp1 activation function by direct interaction and subsequent recruitment of HDACs. More recently the Myc/Max complex was also shown to mediate transcriptional repression by direct binding to peculiar E-box. In this study we analyzed the role of Myc overexpression in Osteosarcoma and Neuroblastoma oncogenesis and the mechanisms underling to Myc function. Myc overexpression is known to correlate with chemoresistance in Osteosarcoma cells. We extended this study by demonstrating that c-Myc induces transcription of a panel of ABC drug transporter genes. ABCs are a large family trans-membrane transporter deeply involved in multi drug resistance. Furthermore expression levels of Myc, ABCC1, ABCC4 and ABCF1 were proved to be important prognostic tool to predict conventional therapy failure. N-Myc amplification/overexpression is the most important prognostic factor for Neuroblastoma. Cyclin G2 and Clusterin are two genes often down regulated in neuroblastoma cells. Cyclin G2 is an atypical member of Cyclin family and its expression is associated with terminal differentiation and apoptosis. Moreover it blocks cell cycle progression and induces cell growth arrest. Instead, CLU is a multifunctional protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Several lines of evidences support the view that CLU may act as a tumour suppressor in Neuroblastoma. In this thesis I showed that N-Myc represses CCNG2 and CLU transcription by different mechanisms. • N-Myc represses CCNG2 transcription by directly interacting with Sp1 bound in CCNG2 promoter and recruiting HDAC2. Importantly, reactivation of CCNG2 expression through epigenetic drugs partially reduces N-Myc and HDAC2 mediated cell proliferation. • N-Myc/Max complex represses CLU expression by direct binding to a peculiar E-box element on CLU promoter and by recruitment of HDACs and Polycomb Complexes, to the CLU promoter. Overall our findings strongly support the model in which Myc overexpression/amplification may contribute to some aspects of oncogenesis by a dual action: i) transcription activation of genes that confer a multidrug resistant phenotype to cancer cells; ii), transcription repression of genes involved in cell cycle inhibition and cellular differentiation.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Gherardi, Samuele
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Myc, repression, ABC, CCNG2, Clusterin
Data di discussione
20 Aprile 2010

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