Influenza dell'Omeostasi Idrico-Elettrolitica sul Ciclo Veglia-Sonno

Martelli, Davide (2009) Influenza dell'Omeostasi Idrico-Elettrolitica sul Ciclo Veglia-Sonno, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Neurofisiologia, 20 Ciclo.
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During the wake sleep (W-S) cycle in mammals, the alternation of the different states, wake, NREM sleep (NREMS) and REM sleep (REMS), is associated not only with electroencephalographic or behavioural changes, but also with modifications in the physiological regulations of the organism. The most evident change is the existence of a suspension of the somatic and autonomic thermoregulatory responses during REMS. Since thermoregulation is prevalently controlled by the Preoptic Area-Anterior Hypothalamus (PO-AH), its suspension during REM sleep has been taken as a sign of an impairment of the hypothalamic integrative activity that could explain the modifications in physiological regulation observed in this sleep stage. The recent finding from our laboratory that the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in response to a central osmotic stimulation is quantitatively the same throughout the different stages of the W-S cycle, has shown that hypothalamic osmoregulation is not suspended during REMS. In order to clarify the extent of the hypothalamic involvement in the regulation of the W-S cycle, we have studied the effects of three days of water deprivation and of two days of recovery during which animals were allowed a free access to water, on the architecture of the W-S cycle. The condition of water deprivation represents a severe challenge involving neuroendocrine and autonomic hypothalamic regulations. In contradiction with thermoregulatory studies, in which it has been clearly demonstrated that a thermal challenge selectively reduces REMS occurrence, the results of this study show that REMS occurrence is mildly reduced only in the third day of water deprivation. The most striking effects produced by water deprivation appear to concern NREMS, which shows a selective and significant reduction in its slow EEG activity (delta-power) but not in its duration. The recovery period is mainly characterized by a disruption of the normal circadian rhythm of REMS occurrence and by a rebound of the delta power in NREMS. Thus, an autonomic challenge different from those related to thermoregulation and an endocrine challenge as the continuous secretion of AVP show to exert different effects on the stages of the wake-sleep cycle. Also, this study demonstrates that the impairment of the hypothalamic integrative activity thought to characterize the occurrence of REMS only involves thermoregulatory structures.

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Tesi di dottorato
Martelli, Davide
Dottorato di ricerca
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Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
25 Maggio 2009

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