Analysis and improvements of four-wire power converters for electric vehicle chargers

Mandrioli, Riccardo (2023) Analysis and improvements of four-wire power converters for electric vehicle chargers, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria biomedica, elettrica e dei sistemi, 35 Ciclo.
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A robust and well-distributed backbone charging network is the priority to ensure widespread electrification of road transport, providing a driving experience similar to that of internal combustion engine vehicles. International standards set multiple technical targets for on-board and off-board electric vehicle chargers; output voltage levels, harmonic emissions, and isolation requirements strongly influence the design of power converters. Additionally, smart-grid services such as vehicle-to-grid and vehicle-to-vehicle require the implementation of bi-directional stages that inevitably increase system complexity and component count. To face these design challenges, the present thesis provides a rigorous analysis of four-leg and split-capacitor three-phase four-wire active front-end topologies focusing on the harmonic description under different modulation techniques and conditions. The resulting analytical formulation paves the way for converter performance improvements while maintaining regulatory constraints and technical requirements under control. Specifically, split-capacitor inverter current ripple was characterized as providing closed-form formulations valid for every sub-case ranging from synchronous to interleaved PWM. Outcomes are the base for a novel variable switching PWM technique capable of mediating harmonic content limitation and switching loss reduction. A similar analysis is proposed for four-leg inverters with a broad range of continuous and discontinuous PWM modulations. The general superiority of discontinuous PWM modulation in reducing switching losses and limiting harmonic emission was demonstrated. Developments are realized through a parametric description of the neutral wire inductor. Finally, a novel class of integrated isolated converter topologies is proposed aiming at the neutral wire delivery without employing extra switching components rather than the one already available in typical three-phase inverter and dual-active-bridge back-to-back configurations. The fourth leg was integrated inside the dual-active-bridge input bridge providing relevant component count savings. A novel modified single-phase-shift modulation technique was developed to ensure a seamless transition between working conditions like voltage level and power factor. Several simulations and experiments validate the outcomes.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Mandrioli, Riccardo
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Electric Vehicle; Charger; Active Front-End; Inverter; Vehicle-to-Grid; Harmonic Pollution; Switching Losses; Pulse Width Modulation; Isolated Converter; Dual-Active-Bridge
Data di discussione
17 Marzo 2023

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