Non-standard signatures from Cosmic Microwave Background polarisation

Billi, Matteo (2022) Non-standard signatures from Cosmic Microwave Background polarisation, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Astrofisica, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10226.
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In this Thesis we focus on non-standard signatures from CMB polarisation, which might hint at the existence of new phenomena beyond the standard models for Cosmology and Particle physics. With the Planck ESA mission, CMB temperature anisotropies have been observed at the cosmic variance limit, but polarisation remains to be further investigated. CMB polarisation data are important not only because they contribute to provide tighter constraints of cosmological parameters but also because they allow the investigation of physical processes that would be precluded if just the CMB temperature maps were considered. We take polarisation data into account to assess the statistical significance of the anomalies currently observed only in the CMB temperature map and to constrain the Cosmic Birefringence (CB) effect, which is expected in parity-violating extensions of the standard electromagnetism. In particular, we propose a new one-dimensional estimator for the lack of power anomaly capable of taking both temperature and polarisation into account jointly. With the aim of studying the anisotropic CB we develop and perform two different and complementary methods able to evaluate the power spectrum of the CB. Finally, by employing these estimators and methodologies on Planck data we provide new constraints beyond what already known in literature. The measure of CMB polarisation represents a technological challenge and to make accurate estimates, one has to keep an exquisite control of the systematic effects. In order to investigate the impact of spurious signal in forthcoming CMB polarisation experiments, we study the interplay between half-wave plates (HWP) non-idealities and the beams. Our analysis suggests that certain HWP configurations, depending on the complexity of Galactic foregrounds and the beam models, significantly impacts the B-mode reconstruction fidelity and could limit the capabilities of next-generation CMB experiments. We provide also a first study of the impact of non-ideal HWPs on CB.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Billi, Matteo
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Cosmic Microwave Background; CMB polarisation; Data analysis; Statistical estimators; Lack of power; CMB anomalies; Cosmic Birefringence; Half-wave plate; Beam convolution; Systematic effects.
Data di discussione
30 Giugno 2022

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