Hybrid Artificial Intelligence to Extract Patterns and Rules from Argumentative and Legal Texts

Liga, Davide (2022) Hybrid Artificial Intelligence to Extract Patterns and Rules from Argumentative and Legal Texts, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Law, science and technology, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/9996.
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This Thesis is composed of a collection of works written in the period 2019-2022, whose aim is to find methodologies of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning to detect and classify patterns and rules in argumentative and legal texts. We define our approach “hybrid”, since we aimed at designing hybrid combinations of symbolic and sub-symbolic AI, involving both “top-down” structured knowledge and “bottom-up” data-driven knowledge. A first group of works is dedicated to the classification of argumentative patterns. Following the Waltonian model of argument and the related theory of Argumentation Schemes, these works focused on the detection of argumentative support and opposition, showing that argumentative evidences can be classified at fine-grained levels without resorting to highly engineered features. To show this, our methods involved not only traditional approaches such as TFIDF, but also some novel methods based on Tree Kernel algorithms. After the encouraging results of this first phase, we explored the use of a some emerging methodologies promoted by actors like Google, which have deeply changed NLP since 2018-19 — i.e., Transfer Learning and language models. These new methodologies markedly improved our previous results, providing us with best-performing NLP tools. Using Transfer Learning, we also performed a Sequence Labelling task to recognize the exact span of argumentative components (i.e., claims and premises), thus connecting portions of natural language to portions of arguments (i.e., to the logical-inferential dimension). The last part of our work was finally dedicated to the employment of Transfer Learning methods for the detection of rules and deontic modalities. In this case, we explored a hybrid approach which combines structured knowledge coming from two LegalXML formats (i.e., Akoma Ntoso and LegalRuleML) with sub-symbolic knowledge coming from pre-trained (and then fine-tuned) neural architectures.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Liga, Davide
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Argument Mining, Natural Language Processing
Data di discussione
16 Giugno 2022

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