Metodi molecolari nello studio della variabilità genetica di Tuber borchii

Bonuso, Enrico (2008) Metodi molecolari nello studio della variabilità genetica di Tuber borchii, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Patologia vegetale, 20 Ciclo.
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Tuber borchii (Ascomycota, order Pezizales) is highly valued truffle sold in local markets in Italy. Despite its economic importance, knowledge on its distribution and population variation is scarce. The objective of this work was to investigate the evolutionary forces shaping the genetic structure of this fungus using coalescent and phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolutionary history of populations in Italy. To assess population structure, 61 specimens were collected from 11 different Provinces of Italy. Sampling was stratified across hosts and habitats to maximize coverage in native oak and pine stands and both mychorrizae and fruiting bodies were collected. Samples were identified considering anatomo-morphological characters. DNA was extracted and both multilocus (AFLP) and single-locus (18 loci from rDNA, nDNA, and mtDNA) approaches were used to look for polymorphisms. Screening AFLP profiles, both Jaccard and Dice coefficients of similarity were utilized to transform binary matrix into a distance matrix and then to desume Neighbour-Joining trees. Though these are only preliminary examinations, phylogenetic trees were totally concordant with those deriving from single locus analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear loci were performed using maximum likelihood with PAUP and a combined phylogenetic inference, using Bayesian estimation with all nuclear gene regions, was carried out. To reconstruct the evolutionary history, we estimated recurrent migration, migration across the history of the sample, and estimated the mutation and approximate age of mutations in each tree using SNAP Workbench. The combined phylogenetic tree using Bayesian estimation suggests that there are two main haplotypes that are difficult to be differentiated on the basis of morphology, of ecological parameters and symbiontic tree. Between these two lineages, that occur in sympatry within T. borchii populations, there is no evidence of recurrent migration. However, migration over the history of the sample was asymmetrical suggesting that isolation was a result of interrupted gene flow followed by range expansion. Low levels of divergence between the haplotypes indicate that there are likely to be two cryptic species within the T. borchii population sampled. Our results suggest that isolation between populations of T. borchii could have led to reproductive isolation between two lineages. This isolation is likely due to sympatric speciation caused by a multiple colonization from different refugia or a recent isolation. In attempting to determinate whether these haplotypes represent separate species or a partition of the same species we applied Biological and Mechanistic species Concepts. Notwithstanding, further analyses are necessary to evaluate if selection favoured premating or post-mating isolation.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Bonuso, Enrico
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
11 Aprile 2008

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