Parapoxvirus: basi genomiche della patogenesi

Gallina, Laura (2008) Parapoxvirus: basi genomiche della patogenesi, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Epidemiologia e controllo delle zoonosi, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/815.
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Parapoxvirus (PPV) are member of a genus in the family poxviridae which currently encompasses four species: the prototype orf virus (OV), bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and parapoxvirus of New Zealand red deer (PVNZ). PPVs cause widespread, but localized diseases of small and large ruminants and they can also be transmitted to man. Knowledge of the molecular biology of PPV is still limited as compared to orthopoxviruses, especially vaccinia virus (VACV). The PPV genome displays a high G+C content and relatively small size for poxvirus. Coventional electron microscopy displays PPV virions with ovoid shape and slightly smaller in size than the brickshaped orthopoxviruses. The most striking feature, which readily enables identification of PPV, is a tubule-like structure that surrounds the particle in a spiral fashion. PPV genome organization and content is very similar to that of other poxviruses, the central region contain 88 genes which are present in all poxviruse, in contrast the terminal regions are variable and contain a set of genes unique to the genus PPV. Genes in the near-terminal regions of the genome are frequently not essential for growth in cultured cells encoding factors with important roles in virushost interactions including modulating host immune responses and determining host range. Recently it was suggested that the open reading frames (ORFs) 109 and 110 of the OV genome have a major role in determining species specificity during natural infection in sheep and goats. This hypothesis is based on the analysis of a few number of sequences of different sheep and goats viral isolates. PPV replicate into the cytoplasm of infected cells and produce three structurally different infectious particles: the intracellular mature virions (IMV), intracellular enveloped virions (IEV) and the extracellular enveloped virions (EEV). The vaccinia A33R and A34R hotologue proteins encoded by the ORFS 109 and 110 are expressed in the envelope of the IEV and EEV. The F1L immunodominant protein of orf virus is the major component of the surface tubule structure of the IMV and can post-translationaly insert into membranes via Cterminal, hydrofobic anchor sequence like its orthologue VACV H3L protein. Moreover the F1L protein binds to glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface and has an important role in IMV adsorption to mammalian cells. In this study we investigated the morphogenesis of the PPV through the construction of a mutant virus deleted of the F1L protein. A study of the deleted virus life cycle was conducted in different type of cells and its morphology was observed with electron microscopy. It was demonstared that F1L protein have important role in morphogenesis and infectivity. Moreover it is essential to determine the spiral fashion of the tubule like structure of the virion surface. Some pathogenetic aspects of the PPV infection were studied, in particular the protein implicated in the host range were analysed in detail. An experimental infection with OV and PCPV was conducted in goats and sheep. After infection, the severity of the lesions were comparable in both the animal species. The OV did not result in severe disease neither in sheep nor in goats, suggesting that host factors, rather than virus strain characteristics, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the Parapoxvirus infections. The PCPV failed to produce any lesion in both sheep and goats, ruling out the possibility of any recombination between PCPV and OV during natural infection in these animal species. The phylogenetic analysis of the ORFs 109 and 110 from several goats and sheep viral isolates showed a clustering based on the antigenic content of the protein that was independent from species and geographic origin.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Gallina, Laura
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
zoonosi ricombinazione omologa mutante deleto
Data di discussione
7 Maggio 2008

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