Marcatura di molecole biologiche a funzione antigenica per lo studio e la caratterizzazione di protocolli di vaccinoterapia in oncologia medica

Ancarani, Valentina (2008) Marcatura di molecole biologiche a funzione antigenica per lo studio e la caratterizzazione di protocolli di vaccinoterapia in oncologia medica, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biotecnologie cellulari e molecolari, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/692.
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Dendritic Cells (DCs) derived from human blood monocytes that have been nurtured in GM-CSF and IL-4, followed by maturation in a monocyte-conditioned medium, are the most potent APCs known. These DCs have many features of primary DCs, including the expression of molecules that enhance antigen capture and selective receptors that guide DCs to and from several sites in the body, where they elicit the T cell mediated immune response. For these features, immature DCs (iDC) loaded with tumor antigen and matured (mDC) with a standard cytokine cocktail, are used for therapeutic vaccination in clinical trials of different cancers. However, the efficacy of DCs in the development of immunocompetence is critically influenced by the type (whole lysate, proteins, peptides, mRNA), the amount and the time of exposure of the tumor antigens used for loading in the presentation phase. The aim of the present study was to create instruments to acquire more information about DC antigen uptake and presentation mechanisms to improve the clinical efficacy of DCbased vaccine. In particular, two different tumor antigen were studied: the monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG or IgA) produced in Myeloma Multiple, and the whole lysate obtained from melanoma tissues. These proteins were conjugated with fluorescent probe (FITC) to evaluate the kinetic of tumor antigen capturing process and its localization into DCs, by cytofluorimetric and fluorescence microscopy analysis, respectively. iDC pulsed with 100μg of IgG-FITC/106 cells were monitored from 2 to 22 hours after loading. By the cytofluorimetric analysis it was observed that the monoclonal antibody was completely captured after 2 hours from pulsing, and was decreased into mDC in 5 hours after maturation stimulus. To monitor the lysate uptake, iDC were pulsed with 80μg of tumor lysate/106 cells, then were monitored in the 2h to 22 hours interval time after loading. Then, to reveal difference between increasing lysate concentration, iDC were loaded with 20-40-80-100-200-400μg of tumor lysate/106 cells and monitored at 2-4-8-13h from pulsing. By the cytofluorimetric analysis, it was observed that, the 20-40-80-100μg uptake, after 8 hours loading was completed reaching a plateau phase. For 200 and 400μg the mean fluorescence of cells increased until 13h from pulsing. The lysate localization into iDC was evaluated with conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis. In the 2h to 8h time interval from loading an intensive and diffuse fluorescence was observed within the cytoplasmic compartment. Moreover, after 8h, the lysate fluorescence appeared to be organized in a restricted cloudy-shaded area with a typical polarized aspect. In addition, small fluorescent spots clearly appeared with an increment in the number and fluorescence intensity. The nature of these spot-like formations and cloudy area is now being investigated detecting the colocalization of the fluorescence lysate and specific markers for lysosomes, autophagosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and MHCII positive vesicles.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ancarani, Valentina
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
cellule dendritiche fluorescenza immunoterapia microscopia elettronica
Data di discussione
6 Giugno 2008

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