Role of αvβ3 – Integrin and TLR2 in the innate response to Herpes Simplex Virus infection and Delivery of retargeted oncolytic Herpes Simplex via carrier cells

Leoni, Valerio (2014) Role of αvβ3 – Integrin and TLR2 in the innate response to Herpes Simplex Virus infection and Delivery of retargeted oncolytic Herpes Simplex via carrier cells, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biologia cellulare e molecolare, 26 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/6464.
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In the first part of my thesis I studied the mechanism of initiation of the innate response to HSV-1. Innate immune response is the first line of defense set up by the cell to counteract pathogens infection and it is elicited by the activation of a number of membrane or intracellular receptors and sensors, collectively indicated as PRRs, Patter Recognition Receptors. We reported that the HSV pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) that activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and lead to the initiation of innate response are the virion glycoproteins gH/gL and gB, which constitute the conserved fusion core apparatus across the Herpesvirus. Specifically gH/gL is sufficient to initiate a signaling cascade which leads to NF-κB activation. Then, by gain and loss-of-function approaches, we found that αvβ3-integrin is a sensor of and plays a crucial role in the innate defense against HSV-1. We showed that αvβ3-integrin signals through a pathway that concurs with TLR2, affects activation/induction of interferons type 1, NF-κB, and a polarized set of cytokines and receptors. Thus, we demonstrated that gH/gL is sufficient to induce IFN1 and NF-κB via this pathway. From these data, we proposed that αvβ3-integrin is considered a class of non-TLR pattern recognition receptors. In the second part of my thesis I studied the capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated by fetal membranes (FM-hMSCs) to be used as carrier cells for the delivery of retargeted R-LM249 virus. The use of systemically administrated carrier cells to deliver oncolytic viruses to tumoral targets is a promising strategy in oncolytic virotherapy. We observed that FM-hMSCs can be infected by R-LM249 and we optimized the infection condition; then we demonstrate that stromal cells sustain the replication of retargeted R-LM249 and spread it to target tumoral cells. From these preliminary data FM-hMSCs resulted suitable to be used as carrier cells

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Leoni, Valerio
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
HSV-1, innate immune response, TLR2, αvβ3-integrin, glycoproteins gH/gL, retargeted R-LM249, mesenchymal stromal cells, carrier cells
Data di discussione
7 Aprile 2014

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