Mechanisms Contributing to Tyrosin Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in GISTs: Toward a Personalized Therapy

Ravegnini, Gloria (2014) Mechanisms Contributing to Tyrosin Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in GISTs: Toward a Personalized Therapy, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze farmacologiche e tossicologiche, dello sviluppo e del movimento umano, 26 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/6331.
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. This work considers the pharmacological response in GIST patients treated with imatinib by two different angles: the genetic and somatic point of view. We analyzed polymorphisms influence on treatment outcome, keeping in consideration SNPs in genes involved in drug transport and folate pathway. Naturally, all these intriguing results cannot be considered as the only main mechanism in imatinib response. GIST mainly depends by oncogenic gain of function mutations in tyrosin kinase receptor genes, KIT or PDGFRA, and the mutational status of these two genes or acquisition of secondary mutation is considered the main player in GIST development and progression. To this purpose we analyzed the secondary mutations to better understand how these are involved in imatinib resistance. In our analysis we considered both imatinib and the second line treatment, sunitinib, in a subset of progressive patients. KIT/PDGFRA mutation analysis is an important tool for physicians, as specific mutations may guide therapeutic choices. Currently, the only adaptations in treatment strategy include imatinib starting dose of 800 mg/daily in KIT exon-9-mutated GISTs. In the attempt to individualize treatment, genetic polymorphisms represent a novelty in the definition of biomarkers of imatinib response in addition to the use of tumor genotype. Accumulating data indicate a contributing role of pharmacokinetics in imatinib efficacy, as well as initial response, time to progression and acquired resistance. At the same time it is becoming evident that genetic host factors may contribute to the observed pharmacokinetic inter-patient variability. Genetic polymorphisms in transporters and metabolism may affect the activity or stability of the encoded enzymes. Thus, integrating pharmacogenetic data of imatinib transporters and metabolizing genes, whose interplay has yet to be fully unraveled, has the potential to provide further insight into imatinib response/resistance mechanisms.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ravegnini, Gloria
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
gist; resistance
Data di discussione
7 Aprile 2014

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