Development of newly conceived biomimetic nano-structured biomaterials as scaffolds for bone and osteochondral regeneration

D’Alessandro, Teresa (2013) Development of newly conceived biomimetic nano-structured biomaterials as scaffolds for bone and osteochondral regeneration, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze chimiche, 25 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/5275.
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The present research thesis was focused on the development of new biomaterials and devices for application in regenerative medicine, particularly in the repair/regeneration of bone and osteochondral regions affected by degenerative diseases such as Osteoarthritis and Osteoporosis or serious traumas. More specifically, the work was focused on the synthesis and physico-chemical-morphological characterization of: i) a new superparamagnetic apatite phase; ii) new biomimetic superparamagnetic bone and osteochondral scaffolds; iii) new bioactive bone cements for regenerative vertebroplasty. The new bio-devices were designed to exhibit high biomimicry with hard human tissues and with functionality promoting faster tissue repair and improved texturing. In particular, recent trends in tissue regeneration indicate magnetism as a new tool to stimulate cells towards tissue formation and organization; in this perspective a new superparamagnetic apatite was synthesized by doping apatite lattice with di-and trivalent iron ions during synthesis. This finding was the pin to synthesize newly conceived superparamagnetic bone and osteochondral scaffolds by reproducing in laboratory the biological processes yielding the formation of new bone, i.e. the self-assembly/organization of collagen fibrils and heterogeneous nucleation of nanosized, ionically substituted apatite mimicking the mineral part of bone. The new scaffolds can be magnetically switched on/off and function as workstations guiding fast tissue regeneration by minimally invasive and more efficient approaches. Moreover, in the view of specific treatments for patients affected by osteoporosis or traumas involving vertebrae weakening or fracture, the present work was also dedicated to the development of new self-setting injectable pastes based on strontium-substituted calcium phosphates, able to harden in vivo and transform into strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite. The addition of strontium may provide an anti-osteoporotic effect, aiding to restore the physiologic bone turnover. The ceramic-based paste was also added with bio-polymers, able to be progressively resorbed thus creating additional porosity in the cement body that favour cell colonization and osseointegration.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
D’Alessandro, Teresa
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Hydroxyapatite, Biomineralization, Biomimetic scaffolds, Bone regeneration, Magnetic properties, Superparamagnetism, Bone cement
Data di discussione
22 Aprile 2013

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