Evaluation of Microbial Contamination in Bivalve Mollusks: Epidemiology and Diagnosis

Grodzki, Marco (2012) Evaluation of Microbial Contamination in Bivalve Mollusks: Epidemiology and Diagnosis, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Epidemiologia e controllo delle zoonosi, 24 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/4834.
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Shellfish are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate many bacteria and viruses. Considering that depuration procedures are not effective in removal of certain microorganisms, shellfish-borne diseases are frequent in many parts of the world, and their control must rely primarily on investigation of prevalence of human pathogens in shellfish and water environment. However, the diffusion of enteric viruses and Vibrio bacteria is not known in many geographical areas, for example in Sardinia, Italy. A survey aimed at investigating the prevalence of Norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae and V. vulnificus was carried out, analyzing both local and imported purified, non-purified and retail shellfish from North Italy and Sardinia. Shellfish from both areas were found contaminated by NoVs, HAV and Vibrio, including retail and purified animals. Molecular analysis evidenced different NoV genogroups and genotypes, including bovine NoVs, as well as pathogenic Vibrio strains, underlining the risk for shellfish consumers. However, also other approaches are needed to control the diffusion of shellfish-borne diseases. It was originally thought that enteric viruses are passively accumulated by shellfish. Recently, it was proven that NoVs bind to specific carbohydrate ligands in oysters, and various NoV strains are characterized by a different bioaccumulation pattern. To deepen the knowledge on this argument, a study was carried out, analyzing bioaccumulation of up to 8 different NoV strains in four different species of shellfish. Different bioaccumulation patterns were observed for each shellfish species and NoV strain used, potentially important in setting up effective shellfish purification protocols. Finally, a novel study of evaluation of viral contamination in shellfish from the French Atlantic coast was carried out following the passage of Xynthia tempest over Western Europe which caused massive destruction. Different enteric viruses were found over a one month period, evidencing the potential of these events of contaminating shellfish.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Grodzki, Marco
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze veterinarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Norovirus, HAV, Vibrio, bivalve, shellfish, microbial contamination, epidemiology, diagnosis
Data di discussione
20 Aprile 2012

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