Sistemi supramolecolari foto- e redox-attivi contenenti complessi metallici

Marchi, Enrico (2011) Sistemi supramolecolari foto- e redox-attivi contenenti complessi metallici, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze chimiche, 23 Ciclo.
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The aim of this Ph.D. project has been the photophysical and photochemical characterization of new photo- and redox-active supramolecular systems. In particular we studied two different classes of compounds: metal complexes and dendrimers. Two different families of bis-cyclometalated neutral Ir(III) complexes are presented and their photophysical properties are discussed. The first family of complexes contains two 2-phenylpyridyl (ppy) or 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl (F2ppy) cyclometalated ligands and an ancillary ligand constituted by a phenol-oxazoline (phox), which can be substituted in the third position with a fluorine group (Fphox). In the second part of this study, we present another family of bis-cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes in which the ancillary ligand could be a chiral or an achiral bis-oxazoline (box). We report on their structural, electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties. Complexes containing phox and Fphox ancillary ligands show blue luminescence with very high quantum yield, while complexes with box ligands do not show particularly interesting photophysical properties. Surprisingly these complexes give an unexpected photoreaction when irradiated with UV light in presence of dioxygen. This photoreaction originates a stable, strong blue emitting and particularly interesting photoproduct. Three successive generations of a family of polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-coated Pd(II) tetrabenzoporphyrin (PdTBP)-based dendritic nanoprobes are presented, and their ability to sensitize singlet oxygen and inflict cellular photodamage are discussed. It was found that the size of the dendrimer has practically no effect on the singlet oxygen sensitization efficiency, that approximate the unity, in spite of the strong attenuation of the triplet quenching rate with an increase in the dendrimer generation. Nevertheless, when compared against a commonly used singlet oxygen sensitizer, as Photofrin, the phosphorescent probes were found to be non-phototoxic. The lack of phototoxicity is presumably due to the inability of PEGylated probes to associate with cell surfaces and/or penetrate cellular membranes. The results suggest that protected phosphorescent probes can be safely used for oxygen measurements in biological systems in vivo. A new family of two photoswitchable (G0(Azo) and G1(Azo)) dendrimers with an azobenzene core, two cyclam units as coordination sites for metal ions, and luminescent naphthalene units at the periphery have been characterized and their coordination abilities have been studied. Because of their proximity, the various functional groups of the dendrimer may interact, so that the properties of the dendrimers are different from those exhibited by the separated functional units. Both the naphthalene fluorescence and the azobenzene photoisomerization can be observed in the dendrimer, but it has been shown that (i) the fluorescent excited state of the naphthalene units is substantially quenched by excimer and exciplex formation and by energy transfer to the azobenzene units, and (ii) in the latter case the fluorescence quenching is accompanied by the photosensitized isomerization of the trans → cis, and, with higher efficiency, the cis → trans reaction. Complexation of these dendrimers, both trans and cis isomers, with Zn(II) ions shows that complexes of 1:1 and 2:1 metal per dendrimer stoichiometry are formed showing different photophysical and photochemical properties compared to the corresponding free ligands. Practically unitary efficiency of the sensitized isomerization of trans → cis and cis → trans reaction is observed, as well as a slight increase in the naphthalene monomer emission. These results are consistent with the coordination of the cyclam amine units with Zn(II), which prevents exciplex formation. No indication of a concomitant coordination of both cyclam to a single metal ion has been obtained both for trans and cis isomer.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Marchi, Enrico
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
dendrimer iridium complex porphyrin oxygen sensor azobenzene cyclam energy transfer photoisomerization
Data di discussione
19 Aprile 2011

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