Vegetables biofortified with iodine: chemical, agronomic and qualitative aspects of raw and fried potatoes

Zanirato, Valeria (2011) Vegetables biofortified with iodine: chemical, agronomic and qualitative aspects of raw and fried potatoes , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze e biotecnologie degli alimenti, 23 Ciclo.
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Iodine is an essential microelement for human health because it is a constituent of the thyroid hormones that regulate growth and development of the organism. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) are believed to be one of the commonest preventable human health problems in the world today, according to the World Health Organization: that diseases include endemic goiter, cretinism and fetal abnormalities, among others, and they are caused by lack of iodine in the diet, that is the main source of iodine. Since iodine intake from food is not enough respect to human needs, this can be remedied through dietary diversification, mineral supplementation, food fortification, or increasing the concentration and/or bioavailability of mineral elements in the edible portions of crops through agricultural intervention or genetic selection (biofortification). The introduction of iodized salt is a strategy widely used and accepted to eradicate iodine deficiency, because it is an inexpensive source of stable iodine. Since the intake of salt, though iodized, must still be limited according to the risk of cardiovascular disease, so the increase of iodine content in plants for the production of functional foods is representing a field of study of particular interest and a potential market. In Italy potatoes enriched with iodine are produced by a patented procedure of agronomic biofortification for the fresh market since several years, furthermore they are recently accepted and recommended by Italian Thyroid Association, as an alternative source of iodine. Researches performed during the PhD course intended to characterize this innovative vegetables products, focusing the attention on different aspects, such as chemistry, agriculture, and quality of fresh and fried potatoes. For this purpose, lipid fraction of raw material was firstly investigated, in order to assess whether the presence of iodine in plant metabolism can affect fatty acid or sterol biosynthesis, according to the hypothesis that iodine can be bounded to polyunsaturated fatty acids of cell membranes, protecting them from peroxydation; phytosterols of plant sterol are also studied because their importance in reducing serum cholesterol, especially in potato plant sterols are also involved in synthesis of glycoalkaloid, a family of steroidal toxic secondary metabolites present in plants of the Solanaceae family. To achieve this goal chromatographic analytical techniques were employed to identify and quantify fatty acids and sterols profile of common and iodine enriched row potatoes. Another aim of the project was to evaluate the effects of frying on the quality of iodine-enriched and common potatoes. Since iodine-enriched potatoes are nowadays produced only for the fresh market, preliminary trials of cultivation under controlled environment were carried out to verify if potato varieties suitable for processing were able to absorb and accumulate iodine in the tuber. In a successive phase, these varieties were grown in the field, to evaluate their potential productivity and quality at harvest and after storage. The best potato variety to be destined for processing purposes, was finally subjected to repeated frying cycles; the effects of lipid oxidation on the composition and quality of both potatoes and frying oil bath were evaluated by chromatographic and spectrophotometric analytical techniques. Special attention were paid on volatile compounds of fried potatoes.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Zanirato, Valeria
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze agrarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
iodine potatoes biofortified food lipid oxidation fried potatoes volatile compounds fatty acids phytosterols
Data di discussione
27 Maggio 2011

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