Synthesis and Physical-Chemical characterization of Metallic Nanoparticles

Fracasso, Guido (2010) Synthesis and Physical-Chemical characterization of Metallic Nanoparticles , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze chimiche, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2895.
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The stabilization of nanoparticles against their irreversible particle aggregation and oxidation reactions. is a requirement for further advancement in nanoparticle science and technology. For this reason the research aim on this topic focuses on the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles protected with monolayers containing different reactive head groups and functional tail groups. In this work cuprous bromide nanocrystals haave been synthetized with a diameter of about 20 nanometers according to a new sybthetic method adding dropwise ascorbic acid to a water solution of lithium bromide and cupric chloride under continuous stirring and nitrogen flux. Butane thiolate Cu protected nanoparticles have been synthetized according to three different syntesys methods. Their morphologies appear related to the physicochemical conditions during the synthesis and to the dispersing medium used to prepare the sample. Synthesis method II allows to obtain stable nanoparticles of 1-2 nm in size both isolated and forming clusters. Nanoparticle cluster formation was enhanced as water was used as dispersing medium probably due to the idrophobic nature of the butanethiolate layers coating the nanoparticle surface. Synthesis methods I and III lead to large unstable spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 20 to 50 nm. These nanoparticles appeared in the TEM micrograph with the same morphology independently on the dispersing medium used in the sample preparation. The stability and dimensions of the copper nanoparticles appear inversely related. Using the same methods above described for the butanethiolate protected copper nanoparticles 4-methylbenzenethiol protected copper nanoparticles have been prepared. Diffractometric and spectroscopic data reveal that decomposition processes didn’t occur in both the 4-methylbenzenethiol copper protected nanoparticles precipitates from formic acid and from water in a period of time six month long. Se anticarcinogenic effects by multiple mechanisms have been extensively investigated and documented and Se is defined a genuine nutritional cancer-protecting element and a significant protective effect of Se against major forms of cancer. Furthermore phloroglucinol was found to possess cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, thanks to reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are associated with cells and tissue damages and are the contributing factors for inflammation, aging, cancer, arteriosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes. The goal of our work has been to set up a new method to synthesize in mild conditions amorphous Se nanopaticles surface capped with phloroglucinol, which is used during synthesis as reducing agent to obtain stable Se nanoparticles in ethanol, performing the synergies offered by the specific anticarcinogenic properties of Se and the antioxiding ones of phloroalucinol. We have synthesized selenium nanoparticles protected by phenolic molecules chemically bonded to their surface. The phenol molecules coating the nanoparticles surfaces form low ordered arrays as can be seen from the wider shape of the absorptions in the FT-IR spectrum with respect to those appearing in that of crystalline phenol. On the other hand, metallic nanoparticles with unique optical properties, facile surface chemistry and appropriate size scale are generating much enthusiasm in nanomedicine. In fact Au nanoparticles has immense potential for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. Especially Au nanoparticles efficiently convert the strongly adsorbed light into localized heat, which can be exploited for the selective laser photothermal therapy of cancer. According to the about, metal nanoparticles-HA nanocrystals composites should have tremendous potential in novel methods for therapy of cancer. 11 mercaptoundecanoic surface protected Au4Ag1 nanoparticles adsorbed on nanometric apathyte crystals we have successfully prepared like an anticancer nanoparticles deliver system utilizing biomimetic hydroxyapatyte nanocrystals as deliver agents. Furthermore natural chrysotile, formed by densely packed bundles of multiwalled hollow nanotubes, is a mineral very suitable for nanowires preparation when their inner nanometer-sized cavity is filled with a proper material. Bundles of chrysotile nanotubes can then behave as host systems, where their large interchannel separation is actually expected to prevent the interaction between individual guest metallic nanoparticles and act as a confining barrier. Chrysotile nanotubes have been filled with molten metals such as Hg, Pb, Sn, semimetals, Bi, Te, Se, and with semiconductor materials such as InSb, CdSe, GaAs, and InP using both high-pressure techniques and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Under hydrothermal conditions chrysotile nanocrystals have been synthesized as a single phase and can be utilized as a very suitable for nanowires preparation filling their inner nanometer-sized cavity with metallic nanoparticles. In this research work we have synthesized and characterized Stoichiometric synthetic chrysotile nanotubes have been partially filled with bi and monometallic highly monodispersed nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 1,7 to 5,5 nm depending on the core composition (Au, Au4Ag1, Au1Ag4, Ag). In the case of 4 methylbenzenethiol protected silver nanoparticles, the filling was carried out by convection and capillarity effect at room temperature and pressure using a suitable organic solvent. We have obtained new interesting nanowires constituted of metallic nanoparticles filled in inorganic nanotubes with a inner cavity of 7 nm and an isolating wall with a thick ranging from 7 to 21 nm.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Fracasso, Guido
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
nanoparticles, chrysotile nanotubes, semiconductor, hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals
Data di discussione
3 Giugno 2010

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