Studio genetico ed epidemiologico su Erysiphe necator agente eziologico dell'Oidio della vite

Portillo, Ivan (2010) Studio genetico ed epidemiologico su Erysiphe necator agente eziologico dell'Oidio della vite, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ecologia microbica e patologia vegetale, 22 Ciclo.
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The objective was to analyse population structure and to determine genetic diversity of Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator) populations obtained from some vineyards located in the South-East Po valley (Italy). Powdery mildew is one of the most important fungal diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) throughout the world. The causal agent is the haploid, heterothallic ascomycete E. necator. It is an obligate biotrophic fungus and it can be found only on green organs of plants belonging to the family Vitaceae. For this pathogen, two sympatric populations (groups A and B) have been described in Europe and Australia. The two genetic groups differ at multiple genetic loci and previous studies reported a lack of interfertility among isolates of the two groups. There are now several well documented examples of plant pathogen species, such as Leptosphaeria maculans, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe syringae, which are indeed composed of genetically differentiated clades, that have led to the description of new groups or even new species. Several studies have suggested that genetic E. necator group A and B correlated with ecological features of the pathogen; some researchers proposed that group A isolates over-winter as resting mycelium within dormant buds, and in spring originate infected shoots, known as Flag shoots, while group B isolates would survive as ascospores in overwintering cleistothecia. However, the association between genetic groups and mode of over-wintering has been challenged by recent studies reporting that flag-shoot may be originated indifferently by group A or group B isolate. Previous studies observed a strong association between the levels of disease severity at the end of the growing season and the initial compositions of E. necator populations in commercial vineyards. The frequencies of E. necator genetic groups vary considerably among vineyards, and the two groups may coexist in the same vineyard. This finding suggests that we need more information on the genetics and epidemiology of E. necator for optimize the crop management In this study we monitored E. necator populations in different vineyards in Emilia – Romagna region (Italy), where the pathogen overwinters both as flagshoots and as cleistothecia. During the grape growing season, symptomatic leaves were sampled early in the growing season and both leaves and berries later during the epidemic growth of the disease. From each sample, single-conidial isolate was obtained. Each isolates was grown on V. vinifera leaf cv. Primitivo and after harvesting the mycelium, the DNA was purified and used as template for PCR amplification with SCAR primers (Sequences Characterised Amplified Region ), -tubulin, IGS sequences and Microsatellite markers (SSR). Amplified DNA from b-tubulin and IGS loci was digested with AciI and XhoI restriction enzymes, respectively, to show single-nucleotide polymorphisms specific for the two genetic groups. The results obtained indicated that SCAR primers are not useful to study the epidemiology. of E. necator conversely the b-tubulin IGS sequences and SSR. Summarize the results obtained with b-tubulin, IGS sequences, in treated vineyards we have found individuals of group B along all grape growing season, whereas in the untreated vineyard individuals of the two genetic groups A and B coexisted throughout the season, with no significant change of their frequency. DNA amplified from ascospores of single cleistothecia showed the presence of markers diagnostic for either groups A and B and were seldom observed also the coexistence of both groups within a claistothecium. These results indicate that individuals of the two groups mated in nature and were able to produced ascospores. With SSR we showed the possibility of recombination between A and B groups in field isolates. During winter, cleistothecia were collected repeatedly in the same vineyards sampling leaves fallen on ground, exfoliating bark from trunks, and from soil. From each substrate, was assess the percentage of cleistothecia containing viable ascospores. Our results confirmed that cleisthotecia contained viable ascospores, therefore they have the potential to be an additional and important source of primary inoculum in Emilia-Romagna vineyards.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Portillo, Ivan
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze agrarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Erysiphe necator, Powdery mildew, SSRs, Igs, Beta-tubulin, Cleistothecia
Data di discussione
29 Marzo 2010

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