Supramolecular functional assemblies with photo or chemical addressability

Neviani, Paolo (2010) Supramolecular functional assemblies with photo or chemical addressability, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze farmaceutiche, 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2410.
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Supramolecular self-assembly represents a key technology for the spontaneous construction of nanoarchitectures and for the fabrication of materials with enhanced physical and chemical properties. In addition, a significant asset of supramolecular self-assemblies rests on their reversible formation, thanks to the kinetic lability of their non-covalent interactions. This dynamic nature can be exploited for the development of “self-healing” and “smart” materials towards the tuning of their functional properties upon various external factors. One particular intriguing objective in the field is to reach a high level of control over the shape and size of the supramolecular architectures, in order to produce well-defined functional nanostructures by rational design. In this direction, many investigations have been pursued toward the construction of self-assembled objects from numerous low-molecular weight scaffolds, for instance by exploiting multiple directional hydrogen-bonding interactions. In particular, nucleobases have been used as supramolecular synthons as a result of their efficiency to code for non-covalent interaction motifs. Among nucleobases, guanine represents the most versatile one, because of its different H-bond donor and acceptor sites which display self-complementary patterns of interactions. Interestingly, and depending on the environmental conditions, guanosine derivatives can form various types of structures. Most of the supramolecular architectures reported in this Thesis from guanosine derivatives require the presence of a cation which stabilizes, via dipole-ion interactions, the macrocyclic G-quartet that can, in turn, stack in columnar G-quadruplex arrangements. In addition, in absence of cations, guanosine can polymerize via hydrogen bonding to give a variety of supramolecular networks including linear ribbons. This complex supramolecular behavior confers to the guanine-guanine interactions their upper interest among all the homonucleobases studied. They have been subjected to intense investigations in various areas ranging from structural biology and medicinal chemistry – guanine-rich sequences are abundant in telomeric ends of chromosomes and promoter regions of DNA, and are capable of forming G-quartet based structures– to material science and nanotechnology. This Thesis, organized into five Chapters, describes mainly some recent advances in the form and function provided by self-assembly of guanine based systems. More generally, Chapter 4 will focus on the construction of supramolecular self-assemblies whose self-assembling process and self-assembled architectures can be controlled by light as external stimulus. Chapter 1 will describe some of the many recent studies of G-quartets in the general area of nanoscience. Natural G- quadruplexes can be useful motifs to build new structures and biomaterials such as self-assembled nanomachines, biosensors, therapeutic aptamer and catalysts. In Chapters 2-4 it is pointed out the core concept held in this PhD Thesis, i.e. the supramolecular organization of lipophilic guanosine derivatives with photo or chemical addressability. Chapter 2 will mainly focus on the use of cation-templated guanosine derivatives as a potential scaffold for designing functional materials with tailored physical properties, showing a new way to control the bottom-up realization of well-defined nanoarchitectures. In section 2.6.7, the self-assembly properties of compound 28a may be considered an example of open-shell moieties ordered by a supramolecular guanosine architecture showing a new (magnetic) property. Chapter 3 will report on ribbon-like structures, supramolecular architectures formed by guanosine derivatives that may be of interest for the fabrication of molecular nanowires within the framework of future molecular electronic applications. In section 3.4 we investigate the supramolecular polymerizations of derivatives dG 1 and G 30 by light scattering technique and TEM experiments. The obtained data reveal the presence of several levels of organization due to the hierarchical self-assembly of the guanosine units in ribbons that in turn aggregate in fibrillar or lamellar soft structures. The elucidation of these structures furnishes an explanation to the physical behaviour of guanosine units which display organogelator properties. Chapter 4 will describe photoresponsive self-assembling systems. Numerous research examples have demonstrated that the use of photochromic molecules in supramolecular self-assemblies is the most reasonable method to noninvasively manipulate their degree of aggregation and supramolecular architectures. In section 4.4 we report on the photocontrolled self-assembly of modified guanosine nucleobase E-42: by the introduction of a photoactive moiety at C8 it is possible to operate a photocontrol over the self-assembly of the molecule, where the existence of G-quartets can be alternately switched on and off. In section 4.5 we focus on the use of cyclodextrins as photoresponsive host-guest assemblies: αCD–azobenzene conjugates 47-48 (section 4.5.3) are synthesized in order to obtain a photoresponsive system exhibiting a fine photocontrollable degree of aggregation and self-assembled architecture. Finally, Chapter 5 contains the experimental protocols used for the research described in Chapters 2-4.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Neviani, Paolo
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
self-assembly, guanosine derivatives, G-quartet , ribbons, photoresponsive self-assembling systems
Data di discussione
15 Aprile 2010

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