Il craniofaringioma nel bambino e nell'adolescente. Luci ed ombre durante il follow-up

Baronio, Federico (2009) Il craniofaringioma nel bambino e nell'adolescente. Luci ed ombre durante il follow-up, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Medicina materno infantile e dell'età evolutiva, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2131.
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Introduction. Craniopharyngioma (CF) is a malformation of the hypothalamicpituitary region and it is the most common nonglial cerebral tumor in children with an high overall survival rate. In some case severe endocrinologic and metabolic sequelae may occur during follow up. 50% of patients (pts), in particular those with radical removal of suprasellar lesions, develop intractable hyperphagia and morbid obesity, with dyslypidemia and high cardiovascular risk. We studied the auxological and metabolic features of a series of 29 patients (18 males) treated at a mean age of 7,6 years, followed up in our Centre from 1973 to 2008 with a mean follow up of 8,3 years. Patients features at the onset. 62% of pts showed as first symptoms of disease visual impairment and neurological disturbancies (headache); 34% growth arrest; 24% signs of raised intracranial pressure and 7% diabetes insipidus. Diagnosis. Diagnosis of CF was reached finally by TC or MRI scans which showed endo-suprasellar lesion in 23 cases and endosellar tumour in 6 cases. Treatment and outcome. 25/29 pts underwent surgical removal of CF (19 by transcranial approach and 6 by endoscopic surgery); 4 pts underwent stereotactic surgery as first line therapy. 3 pts underwent local irradiation with yttrium-90, 5 pts post surgery radiotherapy. 45% of pts needed more than one treatment procedure. Results. After CF treatment all patients suffered from 3 or more pituitary hormone deficiencies and diabetes insipidus. They underwent promptly substitutive therapy with corticosteroids, l-thyroxine and desmopressin. In 28/29 pts we found growth hormone (GH) deficiency. 20/28 pts started GH substitutive therapy and 15 pts reached final height(FH) near target height(TH). 8 pts were not GH treated for good growth velocity, even without GH, or for tumour residual. They reached in 2 cases FH over TH showing the already known phenomenon of growth without GH. 38% of patients showed BMI SDS >2 SDS at last assessment, in particular pts not GH treated (BMI 2,5 SDS) are more obese than GH treated (BMI 1,2 SDS). Lipid panel of 16 examined pts showed significative differencies among GH treated (9 pts) and not treated (7 pts) with better profile in GH treated ones for Total Cholesterol/C-HDL and C-LDL/C-HDL. We examined intima media thickness of common carotid arteries in 11 pts. 3/4 not GH treated pts showed ultrasonographic abnormalities: calcifications in 2 and plaque in 1 case. Of them 1 pt was only 12,6 years old and already showed hypothalamic obesity with hyperphagia, high HOMA index and dyslipidemia. In the GH treated group (7) we found calcifications in 1 case and a plaque in another one. GH therapy was started in the young pt with carotid calcifications, with good improvement within 6 months of treatment. 5/29 pts showed hypothalamic obesity, related to hypothalamic damage (type of surgical treatment, endo-suprasellar primitive lesion, recurrences). 48% of patients recurred during follow up ( mean time from treatment: 3 years) and underwent, in some cases up to 4 transcranial surgical treatments. GH seems not to increase recurrence rate since 40% of GH treated recurred vs 66,6% of not GH treated pts. Discussion. Our data show the extereme difficulties that occur during follow up of craniopharyngioma treated patients. GH therapy should be offered to all patients even with good growth velocity after CF treatment, to avoid dislypidemia and reduce cardiovascular risk. The optimal therapy is not completely understood and whether gross tumor removal or partial surgery is the best option remains to be decided only on one patient tumour features and hypothalamic involvement. In conclusion the gold standard treatment of CF remains complete tumour removal, when feasible, or partial resection to preserve hypothalamic function in endosuprasellar large neoplasms.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Baronio, Federico
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze mediche e chirurgiche cliniche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
craniofaringioma follow-up GH body mass index accrescimento dislipidemia
Data di discussione
30 Marzo 2009

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