Microrganismi probiotici per le piante: una strategia di riduzione degli input nella coltura del pomodoro col metodo biologico

Baruffa, Elisa (2009) Microrganismi probiotici per le piante: una strategia di riduzione degli input nella coltura del pomodoro col metodo biologico, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ecologia microbica e resistenza indotta ad agenti fitopatogeni: progetto n. 1 "Ecologia microbica", 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2078.
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In the recent years, consumers became more aware and sensible in respect to environment and food safety matters. They are more and more interested in organic agriculture and markets and tend to prefer ‘organic’ products more than their traditional counterparts. To increase the quality and reduce the cost of production in organic and low-input agriculture, the 6FP-European “QLIF” project investigated the use of natural products such as bio-inoculants. They are mostly composed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and other microorganisms, so-called “plant probiotic” microorganisms (PPM), because they help keeping an high yield, even under abiotic and biotic stressful conditions. Italian laws (DLgs 217, 2006) have recently included them as “special fertilizers”. This thesis focuses on the use of special fertilizers when growing tomatoes with organic methods in open field conditions, and the effects they induce on yield, quality and microbial rhizospheric communities. The primary objective was to achieve a better understanding of how plant-probiotic micro-flora management could buffer future reduction of external inputs, while keeping tomato fruit yield, quality and system sustainability. We studied microbial rhizospheric communities with statistical, molecular and histological methods. This work have demonstrated that long-lasting introduction of inoculum positively affected micorrhizal colonization and resistance against pathogens. Instead repeated introduction of compost negatively affected tomato quality, likely because it destabilized the ripening process, leading to over-ripening and increasing the amount of not-marketable product. Instead. After two years without any significant difference, the third year extreme combinations of inoculum and compost inputs (low inoculum with high amounts of compost, or vice versa) increased mycorrhizal colonization. As a result, in order to reduce production costs, we recommend using only inoculum rather than compost. Secondly, this thesis analyses how mycorrhizal colonization varies in respect to different tomato cultivars and experimental field locations. We found statistically significant differences between locations and between arbuscular colonization patterns per variety. To confirm these histological findings, we started a set of molecular experiments. The thesis discusses preliminary results and recommends their continuation and refinement to gather the complete results.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Baruffa, Elisa
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze agrarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
microrganismi probiotici input pomodoro agricoltura biologica
Data di discussione
16 Luglio 2009

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