B-type cytochromes of the DOMON domain superfamily (Novel redox elements of plant plasma membrane)

Tango, Nunzio (2009) B-type cytochromes of the DOMON domain superfamily (Novel redox elements of plant plasma membrane), [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biologia funzionale dei sistemi cellulari e molecolari, 21 Ciclo.
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The aim of the present study is understanding the properties of a new group of redox proteins having in common a DOMON-type domain with characteristics of cytochromes b. The superfamily of proteins containing a DOMON of this type includes a few protein families. With the aim of better characterizing this new protein family, the present work addresses both a CyDOM protein (a cytochrome b561) and a protein only comprised of DOMON(AIR12), both of plant origin. Apoplastic ascorbate can be regenerated from monodehydroascorbate by a trans-plasma membrane redox system which uses cytosolic ascorbate as a reductant and comprises a high potential cytochrome b. We identified the major plasma membrane (PM) ascorbate-reducible b-type cytochrome of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) hypocotyls as orthologs of Arabidopsis auxin-responsive gene air12. The protein, which is glycosylated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the external side of the PM in vivo, was expressed in Pichia pastoris in a recombinant form, lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-modification signal, and purified from the culture medium. Recombinant AIR12 is a soluble protein predicted to fold into a β-sandwich domain and belonging to the DOMON superfamily. It is shown to be a b-type cytochrome with a symmetrical α-band at 561 nm, to be fully reduced by ascorbate and fully oxidized by monodehydroascorbate. Redox potentiometry suggests that AIR12 binds two high-potential hemes (Em,7 +135 and +236 mV). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the auxin-responsive genes AIR12 constitute a new family of plasma membrane b-type cytochromes specific to flowering plants. Although AIR12 is one of the few redox proteins of the PM characterized to date, the role of AIR12 in trans-PM electron transfer would imply interaction with other partners which are still to be identified. Another part of the present project was aimed at understanding of a soybean protein comprised of a DOMON fused with a well-defined b561 cytochrome domain (CyDOM). Various bioinformatic approaches show this protein to be composed of an N-terminal DOMON followed by b561 domain. The latter contains five transmembrane helices featuring highly conserved histidines, which might bind haem groups. The CyDOM has been cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and spectroscopic analyses have been accomplished on solubilized yeast membranes. CyDOM clearly reveal the properties of b-type cytochrome. The results highlight the fact that CyDOM is clearly able to lead an electron flux through the plasmamembrane. Voltage clamp experiments demonstrate that Xenopus laevis oocytes transformed with CyDOM of soybean exhibit negative electrical currents in presence of an external electron acceptor. Analogous investigations were carried out with SDR2, a CyDOM of Drosophila melanogaster which shows an electron transport capacity even higher than plant CyDOM. As quoted above, these data reinforce those obtained in plant CyDOM on the one hand, and on the other hand allow to attribute to SDR2-like proteins the properties assigned to CyDOM. Was expressed in Regenerated tobacco roots, transiently transformed with infected a with chimeral construct GFP: CyDOM (by A. rhizogenes infection) reveals a plasmamembrane localization of CyDOM both in epidermal cells of the elongation zone of roots and in root hairs. In conclusion. Although the data presented here await to be expanded and in part clarified, it is safe to say they open a new perspective about the role of this group of proteins. The biological relevance of the functional and physiological implications of DOMON redox domains seems noteworthy, and it can but increase with future advances in research. Beyond the very finding, however interesting in itself, of DOMON domains as extracellular cytochromes, the present study testifies to the fact that cytochrome proteins containing DOMON domains of the type of “CyDOM” can transfer electrons through membranes and may represent the most important redox component of the plasmamembrane as yet discovered.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Tango, Nunzio
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Data di discussione
16 Aprile 2009

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