MCAO for Extremely Large Telescopes: the cases of LBT and E-ELT

Schreiber, Laura (2009) MCAO for Extremely Large Telescopes: the cases of LBT and E-ELT, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Astronomia, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1855.
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Several MCAO systems are under study to improve the angular resolution of the current and of the future generation large ground-based telescopes (diameters in the 8-40 m range). The subject of this PhD Thesis is embedded in this context. Two MCAO systems, in dierent realization phases, are addressed in this Thesis: NIRVANA, the 'double' MCAO system designed for one of the interferometric instruments of LBT, is in the integration and testing phase; MAORY, the future E-ELT MCAO module, is under preliminary study. These two systems takle the sky coverage problem in two dierent ways. The layer oriented approach of NIRVANA, coupled with multi-pyramids wavefront sensors, takes advantage of the optical co-addition of the signal coming from up to 12 NGS in a annular 2' to 6' technical FoV and up to 8 in the central 2' FoV. Summing the light coming from many natural sources permits to increase the limiting magnitude of the single NGS and to improve considerably the sky coverage. One of the two Wavefront Sensors for the mid- high altitude atmosphere analysis has been integrated and tested as a stand- alone unit in the laboratory at INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna and afterwards delivered to the MPIA laboratories in Heidelberg, where was integrated and aligned to the post-focal optical relay of one LINC-NIRVANA arm. A number of tests were performed in order to characterize and optimize the system functionalities and performance. A report about this work is presented in Chapter 2. In the MAORY case, to ensure correction uniformity and sky coverage, the LGS-based approach is the current baseline. However, since the Sodium layer is approximately 10 km thick, the articial reference source looks elongated, especially when observed from the edge of a large aperture. On a 30-40 m class telescope, for instance, the maximum elongation varies between few arcsec and 10 arcsec, depending on the actual telescope diameter, on the Sodium layer properties and on the laser launcher position. The centroiding error in a Shack-Hartmann WFS increases proportionally to the elongation (in a photon noise dominated regime), strongly limiting the performance. To compensate for this effect a straightforward solution is to increase the laser power, i.e. to increase the number of detected photons per subaperture. The scope of Chapter 3 is twofold: an analysis of the performance of three dierent algorithms (Weighted Center of Gravity, Correlation and Quad-cell) for the instantaneous LGS image position measurement in presence of elongated spots and the determination of the required number of photons to achieve a certain average wavefront error over the telescope aperture. An alternative optical solution to the spot elongation problem is proposed in Section 3.4. Starting from the considerations presented in Chapter 3, a first order analysis of the LGS WFS for MAORY (number of subapertures, number of detected photons per subaperture, RON, focal plane sampling, subaperture FoV) is the subject of Chapter 4. An LGS WFS laboratory prototype was designed to reproduce the relevant aspects of an LGS SH WFS for the E-ELT and to evaluate the performance of different centroid algorithms in presence of elongated spots as investigated numerically and analytically in Chapter 3. This prototype permits to simulate realistic Sodium proles. A full testing plan for the prototype is set in Chapter 4.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Schreiber, Laura
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze matematiche, fisiche ed astronomiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Wavefront Sensing, Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics, Extremely Large Telescopes, Large Binocular Telescope, Laser Guide Stars, spot elongation, bi-prisms wavefront sensor, MAORY.
Data di discussione
31 Marzo 2009

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