Analisi della resistenza ossea: tecniche microtomografiche

Tassani, Simone (2009) Analisi della resistenza ossea: tecniche microtomografiche, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Bioingegneria, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1695.
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This thesis is a part of a larger study about the characterization of mechanical and histomorphometrical properties of bone. The main objects of this study were the bone tissue properties and its resistance to mechanical loads. Moreover, the knowledge about the equipment selected to carry out the analyses, the micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), was improved. Particular attention was given to the reliability over time of the measuring instrument. In order to understand the main characteristics of bone mechanical properties a study of the skeletal, the bones of which it is composed and biological principles that drive their formation and remodelling, was necessary. This study has led to the definition of two macro-classes describing the main components responsible for the resistance to fracture of bone: quantity and quality of bone. The study of bone quantity is the current clinical standard measure for so-called bone densitometry, and research studies have amply demonstrated that the amount of tissue is correlated with its mechanical properties of elasticity and fracture. However, the models presented in the literature, including information on the mere quantity of tissue, have often been limited in describing the mechanical behaviour. Recent investigations have underlined that also the bone-structure and the tissue-mineralization play an important role in the mechanical characterization of bone tissue. For this reason in this thesis the class defined as bone quality was mainly studied, splitting it into two sub-classes of bone structure and tissue quality. A study on bone structure was designed to identify which structural parameters, among the several presented in the literature, could be integrated with the information about quantity, in order to better describe the mechanical properties of bone. In this way, it was also possible to analyse the iteration between structure and function. It has been known for long that bone tissue is capable of remodeling and changing its internal structure according to loads, but the dynamics of these changes are still being analysed. This part of the study was aimed to identify the parameters that could quantify the structural changes of bone tissue during the development of a given disease: osteoarthritis. A study on tissue quality would have to be divided into different classes, which would require a scale of analysis not suitable for the micro-CT. For this reason the study was focused only on the mineralization of the tissue, highlighting the difference between bone density and tissue density, working in a context where there is still an ongoing scientific debate.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Tassani, Simone
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze e ingegneria dell'informazione
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
micro-CT, bone structure,
Data di discussione
17 Aprile 2009

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