Microwave-Mediated Hetero Diels-Alder reaction: Synthesis of biologically active compounds

D’Aurizio, Antonio (2009) Microwave-Mediated Hetero Diels-Alder reaction: Synthesis of biologically active compounds, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze chimiche, 21 Ciclo.
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Heterocyclic compounds represent almost two-thirds of all the known organic compounds: they are widely distributed in nature and play a key role in a huge number of biologically important molecules including some of the most significant for human beings. A powerful tool for the synthesis of such compounds is the hetero Diels-Alder reaction (HDA), that involve a [4+2] cycloaddition reaction between heterodienes and suitable dienophiles. Among heterodienes to be used in such six-membered heterocyclic construction strategy, 3-trialkylsilyloxy-2-aza-1,3-dienes (Fig 1) has been demonstrated particularly attractive. In this thesis work, HDA reactions between 2-azadienes and carbonylic and/or olefinic dienophiles, are described. Moreover, substitution of conventional heating by the corresponding dielectric heating as been explored in the frame of Microwave-Assisted-Organic-Synthesis (MAOS) which constitutes an up-to-grade research field of great interest both from an academic and industrial point of view. Reaction of the azadiene 1 (Fig 1) will be described using as dienophiles carbonyl compounds as aldehyde and ketones. The six-membered adducts thus obtained (Scheme 1) have been elaborated to biologically active compounds like 1,3-aminols which constitutes the scaffold for a wide range of drugs (Prozac®, Duloxetine, Venlafaxine) with large applications in the treatment of severe diseases of nervous central system (NCS). Scheme 1 The reaction provides the formation of three new stereogenic centres (C-2; C-5; C-6). The diastereoselective outcome of these reactions has been deeply investigated by the use of various combination of achiral and chiral azadienes and aliphatic, aromatic or heteroaromatic aldehydes. The same approach, basically, has been used in the synthesis of piperidin-2-one scaffold substituting the carbonyl dienophile with an electron poor olefin. Scheme 2 As a matter of fact, this scaffold is present in a very large number of natural substances and, more interesting, is a required scaffold for an huge variety of biologically active compounds. Activated olefins bearing one or two sulfone groups, were choose as dienophiles both for the intrinsic characteristic flexibility of the “sulfone group” which may be easily removed or elaborated to more complex decorations of the heterocyclic ring, and for the electron poor property of this dienophiles which makes the resulting HDA reaction of the type “normal electron demand”. Synthesis of natural compounds like racemic (±)-Anabasine (alkaloid of Tobacco’s leaves) and (R)- and (S)-Conhydrine (alkaloid of Conium Maculatum’s seeds and leaves) and its congeners, are described (Fig 2).

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
D’Aurizio, Antonio
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Data di discussione
27 Aprile 2009

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