Meccanismi di formazione dei tubi di lava

Valerio, Antonella (2009) Meccanismi di formazione dei tubi di lava, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Geofisica, 21 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1519.
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Two analytical models are proposed to describe two different mechanisms of lava tubes formation. A first model is introduced to describe the development of a solid crust in the central region of the channel, and the formation of a tube when crust widens until it reaches the leve\'es. The Newtonian assumption is considered and the steady state Navier- Stokes equation in a rectangular conduit is solved. A constant heat flux density assigned at the upper flow surface resumes the combined effects of two thermal processes: radiation and convection into the atmosphere. Advective terms are also included, by the introduction of velocity into the expression of temperature. Velocity is calculated as an average value over the channel width, so that lateral variations of temperature are neglected. As long as the upper flow surface cools, a solid layer develops, described as a plastic body, having a resistance to shear deformation. If the applied shear stress exceeds this resistance, crust breaks, otherwise, solid fragments present at the flow surface can weld together forming a continuous roof, as it happens in the sidewall flow regions. Variations of channel width, ground slope and effusion rate are analyzed, as parameters that strongly affect the shear stress values. Crust growing is favored when the channel widens, and tube formation is possible when the ground slope or the effusion rate reduce. A comparison of results is successfully made with data obtained from the analysis of pictures of actual flows. The second model describes the formation of a stable, well defined crust along both channel sides, their growing towards the center and their welding to form the tube roof. The fluid motion is described as in the model above. Thermal budget takes into account conduction into the atmosphere, and advection is included considering the velocity depending both on depth and channel width. The solidified crust has a non uniform thickness along the channel width. Stresses acting on the crust are calculated using the equations of the elastic thin plate, pinned at its ends. The model allows to calculate the distance where crust thickness is able to resist the drag of the underlying fluid and to sustain its weight by itself, and the level of the fluid can lower below the tube roof. Viscosity and thermal conductivity have been experimentally investigated through the use of a rotational viscosimeter. Analyzing samples coming from Mount Etna (2002) the following results have been obtained: the fluid is Newtonian and the thermal conductivity is constant in a range of temperature above the liquidus. For lower temperature, the fluid becomes non homogeneous, and the used experimental techniques are not able to detect any properties, because measurements are not reproducible.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Valerio, Antonella
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze matematiche, fisiche ed astronomiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
vulcanismo, tubi di lava.
Data di discussione
5 Giugno 2009

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