Expressiveness of Concurrent Languages

Di Giusto, Cinzia (2009) Expressiveness of Concurrent Languages, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Informatica, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1433.
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The aim of this thesis is to go through different approaches for proving expressiveness properties in several concurrent languages. We analyse four different calculi exploiting for each one a different technique. We begin with the analysis of a synchronous language, we explore the expressiveness of a fragment of CCS! (a variant of Milner's CCS where replication is considered instead of recursion) w.r.t. the existence of faithful encodings (i.e. encodings that respect the behaviour of the encoded model without introducing unnecessary computations) of models of computability strictly less expressive than Turing Machines. Namely, grammars of types 1,2 and 3 in the Chomsky Hierarchy. We then move to asynchronous languages and we study full abstraction for two Linda-like languages. Linda can be considered as the asynchronous version of CCS plus a shared memory (a multiset of elements) that is used for storing messages. After having defined a denotational semantics based on traces, we obtain fully abstract semantics for both languages by using suitable abstractions in order to identify different traces which do not correspond to different behaviours. Since the ability of one of the two variants considered of recognising multiple occurrences of messages in the store (which accounts for an increase of expressiveness) reflects in a less complex abstraction, we then study other languages where multiplicity plays a fundamental role. We consider the language CHR (Constraint Handling Rules) a language which uses multi-headed (guarded) rules. We prove that multiple heads augment the expressive power of the language. Indeed we show that if we restrict to rules where the head contains at most n atoms we could generate a hierarchy of languages with increasing expressiveness (i.e. the CHR language allowing at most n atoms in the heads is more expressive than the language allowing at most m atoms, with m<n). Finally we analyse a language similar but simpler than CHR. The kappa-calculus is a formalism for modelling molecular biology where molecules are terms with internal state and sites, bonds are represented by shared names labelling sites, and reactions are represented by rewriting rules. Depending on the shape of the rewriting rules, several dialects of the calculus can be obtained. We analyse the expressive power of some of these dialects by focusing on decidability and undecidability for problems like reachability and coverability.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Di Giusto, Cinzia
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Expressiveness, CCS, CHR, kappa-calculus, Linda, Multiset Rewriting System, Full abstraction, Bioinformatics, Language Embedding
Data di discussione
20 Aprile 2009

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