Green approach to Palladium Cross-Coupling reactions and development of new methodologies based on highly abundant metals

Fantoni, Tommaso (2023) Green approach to Palladium Cross-Coupling reactions and development of new methodologies based on highly abundant metals, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Chimica, 35 Ciclo.
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Transition metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions represent among the most versatile and useful tools in organic synthesis for the carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation and have a prominent role in both the academic and pharmaceutical segments. Among them, palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are currently the most versatile. In this thesis, the applications, impact and development of green palladium cross-coupling reactions are discussed. Specifically, we discuss the translation of the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry and their applications in pharmaceutical organometallic chemistry to stimulate the development of cost-effective and sustainable catalytic processes for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The Heck-Cassar-Sonogashira (HCS) and the Suzuki-Miyaura (SM) protocols, using HEP/H2O as green mixture and sulfonated phosphine ligands, allowed to recycle and recover the catalyst, always guaranteeing high yields and fast conversion under mild conditions, with aryl iodides, bromides, triflates and chlorides. No catalyst leakage or metal contamination of the final product were observed during the HCS and SM reactions, respecting the very low limits for metal impurities in medicines established by the International Conference of Harmonization Guidelines Q3D (ICH Q3D). In addition, a deep understanding of the reaction mechanism is very important if the final target is to develop efficient protocols that can be applied at industrial level. Experimental and theoretical studies pointed out the presence of two catalytic cycles depending on the counterion, shedding light on the role of base in catalyst reduction and acetylene coordination in the HCS coupling. Finally, the development of a cross-coupling reaction to form aryldifluoronitriles in the presence of copper is discussed, highlighting the importance of inserting fluorine atoms within biological structures and the use of readily available metals such as copper as an alternative to palladium.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Fantoni, Tommaso
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Heck-Cassar-Sonogashira, Palladium, Recycling, Mechanism
Data di discussione
21 Giugno 2023

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