Identificazione delle Lamine di tipo A come nuovi substrati della protein chinasi Akt/PKB

Bertacchini, Jessika (2008) Identificazione delle Lamine di tipo A come nuovi substrati della protein chinasi Akt/PKB, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze morfologiche umane e molecolari, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1075.
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Akt (also called PKB) is a 63 kDa serine/threonine kinase involved in promotion of cell survival, proliferation a nd metabolic responses downstream the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) signaling pathway. In resting cells, Akt is a predominantly cytosolic enzyme; however generation of PI 3-kinase lipid products recruits Akt to the plasma membrane, resulting in a conformational change which confers full enzymatic activity through the phosphorylation of the membrane-bound protein at two residues, Thr308, and Ser473. Activated Akt redistributes to cytoplasm and nucleus, where phosphorylation of specific substrates occurs. Both the presence and the activity of Akt in the nucleus have been described. An interesting mechanism that mediates nuclear translocation of Akt has been described in human mature T-cell leukemia: the product of TCL1 gene, Tcl1, interacts with the PH domain of phosphorylated Akt, thus driving Akt to the nucleus. In this context, Tcl1 may act as a direct transporter of Akt or may contribute to the formation of a complex that promotes the transport of active Akt to the nucleus, where it can phosphorylate nuclear substrates. A well described nuclear substrate if Foxo. IGF-1 triggers phosphorylation of Foxo by Akt inside the nucleus, where phospho-Foxo associates to 14.3.3 proteins that, in turn, promote its export to the cytoplasm where it is sequestered. Remarkably, Foxo phosphorylation by Akt has been shown to be a crucial event in Akt-dependent myogenesis. However, most Akt nuclear substrates have so far remained elusive, as well as nuclear Akt functions. This lack of information prompted us to undertake a search of substrates of Akt in the nucleus, by the combined use of 2D-separation/mass spectrometry and anti-Akt-phosphosubstrate antibody. This study presents evidence of A-type lamins as novel nuclear substrates of Akt. Lamins are type V intermediate filaments proteins found in the nucleus of higher eukaryotes where, together with lamin-binding proteins, they form the lamina at the nuclear envelope, providing mechanical stability for the nuclear membrane. By coimmunoprecipitation, it is demonstrated here that endogenous lamin A and Akt interact, and that A-type lamins are phosphorylated by Akt both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, by phosphoaminoacid analysis and mutagenesis, it is further demonstrated that Akt phosphorylates lamin A at Ser404, and, more importantly, that while lamin A/C phosphorylation is stable throughout the cell cycle, phosphorylation of the precursor prelamin A becomes detectable as cells enter the G2 phase, picking at G2/M. This study also shows that lamin phosphorylation by Akt creates a binding site for 14.3.3 adaptors which, in turn, promote prelamin A degradation. While this mechanism is in agreement with a general role of Akt in the regulation of a subset of its substrates, opposite to what has been described, degradation is not mediated through a ubiquitination and proteasomal mechanism but through a lysosomal pathway, as indicated by the reverting action of the lysosomal inhibitor cloroquine. Phosphorylation is a key event in the mitotic breakdown of the nuclear lamina. However, the kinases and the precise sites of phosphorylation are scarcely known. Therefore, these results represent an important breakthrough in this very significant but understudied area. The phosphorylation of the precursor protein prelamin A and its subsequent degradation at G2/M, when both the nuclear envelop and the nuclear lamina disassemble, can be view as part of a mechanism to dispose off the precursor that is not needed in this precise context. The recently reported finding that patients affected by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy carry a mutation at Arg 401, in the Akt phosphorylation motif, open new perspective that warrant further investigation in this very important field.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Bertacchini, Jessika
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Parole chiave
akt lamine substrati fosforilazione
Data di discussione
26 Maggio 2008

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