Applied deep learning and data science with a human-centric and data-centric approach

Casini, Luca (2023) Applied deep learning and data science with a human-centric and data-centric approach, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Data science and computation, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10668.
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The term Artificial intelligence acquired a lot of baggage since its introduction and in its current incarnation is synonymous with Deep Learning. The sudden availability of data and computing resources has opened the gates to myriads of applications. Not all are created equal though, and problems might arise especially for fields not closely related to the tasks that pertain tech companies that spearheaded DL. The perspective of practitioners seems to be changing, however. Human-Centric AI emerged in the last few years as a new way of thinking DL and AI applications from the ground up, with a special attention at their relationship with humans. The goal is designing a system that can gracefully integrate in already established workflows, as in many real-world scenarios AI may not be good enough to completely replace its humans. Often this replacement may even be unneeded or undesirable. Another important perspective comes from, Andrew Ng, a DL pioneer, who recently started shifting the focus of development from “better models” towards better, and smaller, data. He defined his approach Data-Centric AI. Without downplaying the importance of pushing the state of the art in DL, we must recognize that if the goal is creating a tool for humans to use, more raw performance may not align with more utility for the final user. A Human-Centric approach is compatible with a Data-Centric one, and we find that the two overlap nicely when human expertise is used as the driving force behind data quality. This thesis documents a series of case-studies where these approaches were employed, to different extents, to guide the design and implementation of intelligent systems. We found human expertise proved crucial in improving datasets and models. The last chapter includes a slight deviation, with studies on the pandemic, still preserving the human and data centric perspective.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Casini, Luca
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Data Science; Deep Learning; Human-Centric; Data-Centric
Data di discussione
29 Marzo 2023

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