Metamorfismo ercinico di bassa-pressione: evoluzione tettonico-metamorfica del complesso di mandatoriccio (massiccio della Sila - Calabria)

Langone, Antonio (2008) Metamorfismo ercinico di bassa-pressione: evoluzione tettonico-metamorfica del complesso di mandatoriccio (massiccio della Sila - Calabria), [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze della terra, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/1062.
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Low-pressure/high-temperature (LP/HT) metamorphic belts are characterised by rocks that experienced abnormal heat flow in shallow crustal levels (T > 600 °C; P < 4 kbar) resulting in anomalous geothermal gradients (60-150 °C/km). The abnormal amount of heat has been related to crustal underplating of mantle-derived basic magmas or to thermal perturbation linked to intrusion of large volumes of granitoids in the intermediate crust. In particular, in this latter context, magmatic or aqueous fluids are able to transport relevant amounts of heat by advection, thus favouring regional LP/HT metamorphism. However, the thermal perturbation consequent to heat released by cooling magmas is responsible also for contact metamorphic effects. A first problem is that time and space relationships between regional LP/HT metamorphism and contact metamorphism are usually unclear. A second problem is related to the high temperature conditions reached at different crustal levels. These, in some cases, can completely erase the previous metamorphic history. Notwithstanding this problem is very marked in lower crustal levels, petrologic and geochronologic studies usually concentrate in these attractive portions of the crust. However, only in the intermediate/upper-crustal levels of a LP/HT metamorphic belt the tectono-metamorphic events preceding the temperature peak, usually not preserved in the lower crustal portions, can be readily unravelled. The Hercynian Orogen of Western Europe is a well-documented example of a continental collision zone with widespread LP/HT metamorphism, intense crustal anatexis and granite magmatism. Owing to the exposure of a nearly continuous cross-section of the Hercynian continental crust, the Sila massif (northern Calabria) represents a favourable area to understand large-scale relationships between granitoids and LP/HT metamorphic rocks, and to discriminate regional LP/HT metamorphic events from contact metamorphic effects. Granulite-facies rocks of the lower crust and greenschist- to amphibolite-facies rocks of the intermediate-upper crust are separated by granitoids emplaced into the intermediate level during the late stages of the Hercynian orogeny. Up to now, advanced petrologic studies have been focused mostly in understanding P-T evolution of deeper crustal levels and magmatic bodies, whereas the metamorphic history of the shallower crustal levels is poorly constrained. The Hercynian upper crust exposed in Sila has been subdivided in two different metamorphic complexes by previous authors: the low- to very low-grade Bocchigliero complex and the greenschist- to amphibolite-facies Mandatoriccio complex. The latter contains favourable mineral assemblages in order to unravel the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Hercynian upper crust. The Mandatoriccio complex consists mainly of metapelites, meta-arenites, acid metavolcanites and metabasites with rare intercalations of marbles and orthogneisses. Siliciclastic metasediments show a static porphyroblastic growth mainly of biotite, garnet, andalusite, staurolite and muscovite, whereas cordierite and fibrolite are less common. U-Pb ages and internal features of zircons suggest that the protoliths of the Mandatoriccio complex formed in a sedimentary basin filled by Cambrian to Silurian magmatic products as well as by siliciclastic sediments derived from older igneous and metamorphic rocks. In some localities, metamorphic rocks are injected by numerous aplite/pegmatite veins. Small granite bodies are also present and are always associated to spotted schists with large porphyroblasts. They occur along a NW-SE trending transcurrent cataclastic fault zone, which represents the tectonic contact between the Bocchigliero and the Mandatoriccio complexes. This cataclastic fault zone shows evidence of activity at least from middle-Miocene to Recent, indicating that brittle deformation post-dated the Hercynian orogeny. P-T pseudosections show that micaschists and paragneisses of the Mandatoriccio complex followed a clockwise P-T path characterised by four main prograde phases: thickening, peak-pressure condition, decompression and peak-temperature condition. During the thickening phase, garnet blastesis started up with spessartine-rich syntectonic core developed within micaschists and paragneisses. Coevally (340 ± 9.6 Ma), mafic sills and dykes injected the upper crustal volcaniclastic sedimentary sequence of the Mandatoriccio complex. After reaching the peak-pressure condition (≈4 kbar), the upper crust experienced a period of deformation quiescence marked by the static overgrowths of S2 by Almandine-rich-garnet rims and by porphyroblasts of biotite and staurolite. Probably, this metamorphic phase is related to isotherms relaxation after the thickening episode recorder by the Rb/Sr isotopic system (326 ± 6 Ma isochron age). The post-collisional period was mainly characterised by decompression with increasing temperature. This stage is documented by the andalusite+biotite coronas overgrown on staurolite porphyroblasts and represents a critical point of the metamorphic history, since metamorphic rocks begin to record a significant thermal perturbation. Peak-temperature conditions (≈620 °C) were reached at the end of this stage. They are well constrained by some reaction textures and mineral assemblages observed almost exclusively within paragneisses. The later appearance of fibrolitic sillimanite documents a small excursion of the P-T path across the And-Sil boundary due to the heating. Stephanian U-Pb ages of monazite crystals from the paragneiss, can be related to this heating phase. Similar monazite U-Pb ages from the micaschist combined with the lack of fibrolitic sillimanite suggest that, during the same thermal perturbation, micaschists recorded temperatures slightly lower than those reached by paragneisses. The metamorphic history ended with the crystallisation of cordierite mainly at the expense of andalusite. Consequently, the Ms+Bt+St+And+Sill+Crd mineral assemblage observed in the paragneisses is the result of a polyphasic evolution and is characterised by the metastable persistence of the staurolite in the stability fields of the cordierite. Geologic, geochronologic and petrographic data suggest that the thermal peak recorded by the intermediate/upper crust could be strictly connected with the emplacement of large amounts of granitoid magmas in the middle crust. Probably, the lithospheric extension in the relatively heated crust favoured ascent and emplacement of granitoids and further exhumation of metamorphic rocks. After a comparison among the tectono-metamorphic evolutions of the different Hercynian crustal levels exposed in Sila, it is concluded that the intermediate/upper crustal level offers the possibility to reconstruct a more detailed tectono-metamorphic history. The P-T paths proposed for the lower crustal levels probably underestimate the amount of the decompression. Apart from these considerations, the comparative analysis indicates that P-T paths at various crustal levels in the Sila cross section are well compatible with a unique geologic scenario, characterized by post-collisional extensional tectonics and magmas ascent.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Langone, Antonio
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
metamorfismo di bassa pressione evoluzione p-t-c pseudosezioni
Data di discussione
31 Marzo 2008

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