Genotype-phenotype correlation in trisomy 21

Antonaros, Francesca (2023) Genotype-phenotype correlation in trisomy 21, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Oncologia, ematologia e patologia, 35 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10612.
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Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 (T21) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Subjects with DS are characterized by complex and variable clinical features including intellectual disability (ID) and craniofacial dysmorphisms. The aim of the thesis is to uncover genotype-phenotype relationships in DS possibly useful to devise therapies based on molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this work, we have investigated different aspects of DS: - we have collected clinical data of children with DS and we have evaluated the cognitive impairment through specific cognitive tests - we have analysed genomics of DS through the study of partial trisomy (PT21) cases. We have described new PT21 cases confirming the hypothesis of the highly restricted DS critical region (HR-DSCR) recently identified as the minimal region whose duplication is shared by all PT21 subjects diagnosed with DS, while it is absent in all PT21 non-DS subjects. Moreover, we have characterized new transcripts included in the HR-DSCR; - we have studied gene expression through RNAseq in blood cells of children with DS; -metabolic alterations in plasma of children with DS were identified through different methods: Nuclear Magnetic resonance, routine blood exams performed during the follow up of the subjects and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); - to test possible correlations between specific Hsa21 regions and alterations in transcriptomics and metabolomics, we have used trisomic iPSCs and differentiated them into neuronal derivatives. Significant alterations in gene expression and metabolic profiles have been identified, as well as significant correlations with clinical and cognitive aspects. Specific genes and the HR-DSCR may play a role in these alterations: cell models need to be developed to investigate this role. Neural derivatives from trisomic iPSCs are a promising model to better understand genotype-phenotype correlations in DS.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Antonaros, Francesca
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Down syndrome, trisomy 21; one-carbon cycle, metabolism, transcriptome.
Data di discussione
6 Aprile 2023

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