Evaluation of the real nutritional value of processed food to improve their effect on health and increase their sustainability

Chiarello, Elena (2023) Evaluation of the real nutritional value of processed food to improve their effect on health and increase their sustainability, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Salute, sicurezza e sistemi del verde, 35 Ciclo.
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Cured meats and dairy products are criticized for their salt content and synthetic additives. This has led to the development of strategies to reduce and replace these ingredients. Since the food matrix and technological processes can affect the bioaccessibility of nutrients, it is necessary to study their release during digestion to determine the real nutritional value of foods. In the first part of this PhD project, the impact on the nutritional quality of the reduction of sodium content and of the replacement of synthetic nitrates/nitrites with a combination of innovative formulations was evaluated in Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese and salami. For this purpose, an in vitro digestion model combined with different analytical techniques was used. The results showed that fatty acids and proteins release increased over time during digestion. At the end of digestion, the innovative formulation/processing did not negatively affect fatty acids release and protein hydrolysis, and led to the formation of bioactive peptides. The excessive intake of sugars is correlated with metabolic diseases. After the intestinal uptake, their release in the blood stream depends on their metabolic fate within the enterocyte. In the second part of this PhD project, the absorption and metabolism of glucose, fructose and sucrose was evaluated using intestinal cell line. A faster absorption of fructose than glucose was observed, and a different modulation of the synthesis/transport of other metabolites by monosaccharides was shown. Intestinal cells were also used to verify the stability and intestinal uptake of vitamins (A and D3) delivered to cells through two vehicles. It was shown that the presence of lipids protected the vitamin from external factors such as light, heat and oxygen, and improved their bioavailability Overall, the results obtained in this PhD project confirmed that considering only the chemical composition of foods is not sufficient to determine their nutritional value.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Chiarello, Elena
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
in vitro digestion, bioaccessibility, bioactive peptides, processed food, intestinal cell model
Data di discussione
27 Marzo 2023

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