S-nitrosylation homeostasis in plants: key enzymes and regulatory pathways

Rossi, Jacopo (2022) S-nitrosylation homeostasis in plants: key enzymes and regulatory pathways, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biologia cellulare e molecolare, 34 Ciclo.
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The nitrosylated form of glutathione (GSNO) has been acknowledged to be the most important nitrosylating agent of the plant cell, and the tuning of its intracellular concentration is of pivotal importance for photosynthetic life. During my time as a PhD student, I focused my attention on the enzymatic systems involved in the degradation of GSNO. Hence, we decided to study the structural and catalytic features of alcohol dehydrogenases (GSNOR and ADH1) from the model land plant Arabidopsis thaliana (At). These enzymes displayed a very similar 3D structure except for their active site which might explain the extreme catalytic specialization of the two enzymes. They share NAD(H) as a cofactor, but only AtGSNOR was able to catalyze the reduction of GSNO whilst being ineffective in oxidizing ethanol. Moreover, our study on the enzyme from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) revealed how this S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) specifically use NADH to catalyze GSNO reduction and how its activity responds to thiol-based post-translational modifications. Contextually, the presence of NADPH-dependent GSNO-degrading systems in algal protein extract was highlighted and resulted to be relatively efficient in this model organism. This activity could be ascribed to several proteins whose contribution has not been defined yet. Intriguingly, protein extract from GSNOR null mutants of Arabidopsis displayed an increased NADPH-dependent ability to degrade GSNO and our quantitative proteome profiling on the gsnor mutant revealed the overexpression of two class 4 aldo-keto reductases (AKR), specifically AtAKR4C8 and AtAKR4C9. Later, all four class 4 AKRs showed to possess a NADPH-dependent GSNO-degrading activity. Finally, we initiated a preliminary analysis to determine the kinetic parameters of several plant proteins, including GSNOR, AKR4Cs, and thioredoxins. These data suggested GSNOR to be the most effective enzyme in catalyzing GSNO reduction because of its extremely high catalytic proficiency compared to NADPH-dependent systems.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Rossi, Jacopo
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Glutathione S-nitrosoglutathione GSNOR Nitrosylation AKRs Redox Alcohol dehydrogenases
Data di discussione
15 Giugno 2022

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