Variational and learning models for image and time series inverse problems

Cascarano, Pasquale (2022) Variational and learning models for image and time series inverse problems, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Matematica, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10191.
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Inverse problems are at the core of many challenging applications. Variational and learning models provide estimated solutions of inverse problems as the outcome of specific reconstruction maps. In the variational approach, the result of the reconstruction map is the solution of a regularized minimization problem encoding information on the acquisition process and prior knowledge on the solution. In the learning approach, the reconstruction map is a parametric function whose parameters are identified by solving a minimization problem depending on a large set of data. In this thesis, we go beyond this apparent dichotomy between variational and learning models and we show they can be harmoniously merged in unified hybrid frameworks preserving their main advantages. We develop several highly efficient methods based on both these model-driven and data-driven strategies, for which we provide a detailed convergence analysis. The arising algorithms are applied to solve inverse problems involving images and time series. For each task, we show the proposed schemes improve the performances of many other existing methods in terms of both computational burden and quality of the solution. In the first part, we focus on gradient-based regularized variational models which are shown to be effective for segmentation purposes and thermal and medical image enhancement. We consider gradient sparsity-promoting regularized models for which we develop different strategies to estimate the regularization strength. Furthermore, we introduce a novel gradient-based Plug-and-Play convergent scheme considering a deep learning based denoiser trained on the gradient domain. In the second part, we address the tasks of natural image deblurring, image and video super resolution microscopy and positioning time series prediction, through deep learning based methods. We boost the performances of supervised, such as trained convolutional and recurrent networks, and unsupervised deep learning strategies, such as Deep Image Prior, by penalizing the losses with handcrafted regularization terms.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Cascarano, Pasquale
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Inverse problems, variational models, learning models, convolutional neural networks, deep image prior, image super resolution, image deblurring, time series prediction.
Data di discussione
7 Giugno 2022

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