Machine learning tools for protein annotation: the cases of transmembrane β-barrel and myristoylated proteins

Madeo, Giovanni (2022) Machine learning tools for protein annotation: the cases of transmembrane β-barrel and myristoylated proteins, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze biotecnologiche, biocomputazionali, farmaceutiche e farmacologiche, 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10169.
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Biology is now a “Big Data Science” thanks to technological advancements allowing the characterization of the whole macromolecular content of a cell or a collection of cells. This opens interesting perspectives, but only a small portion of this data may be experimentally characterized. From this derives the demand of accurate and efficient computational tools for automatic annotation of biological molecules. This is even more true when dealing with membrane proteins, on which my research project is focused leading to the development of two machine learning-based methods: BetAware-Deep and SVMyr. BetAware-Deep is a tool for the detection and topology prediction of transmembrane beta-barrel proteins found in Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins are involved in many biological processes and primary candidates as drug targets. BetAware-Deep exploits the combination of a deep learning framework (bidirectional long short-term memory) and a probabilistic graphical model (grammatical-restrained hidden conditional random field). Moreover, it introduced a modified formulation of the hydrophobic moment, designed to include the evolutionary information. BetAware-Deep outperformed all the available methods in topology prediction and reported high scores in the detection task. Glycine myristoylation in Eukaryotes is the binding of a myristic acid on an N-terminal glycine. SVMyr is a fast method based on support vector machines designed to predict this modification in dataset of proteomic scale. It uses as input octapeptides and exploits computational scores derived from experimental examples and mean physicochemical features. SVMyr outperformed all the available methods for co-translational myristoylation prediction. In addition, it allows (as a unique feature) the prediction of post-translational myristoylation. Both the tools here described are designed having in mind best practices for the development of machine learning-based tools outlined by the bioinformatics community. Moreover, they are made available via user-friendly web servers. All this make them valuable tools for filling the gap between sequential and annotated data.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Madeo, Giovanni
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Bioinformatics, Protein Annotation, Machine Learning, Transmembrane Beta-Barrel Proteins, Myristoylated Proteins
Data di discussione
24 Giugno 2022

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