Numerical assessment of the water injection application to GDI engines

Ricci, Matteo (2021) Numerical assessment of the water injection application to GDI engines, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Meccanica e scienze avanzate dell'ingegneria, 33 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/9582.
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A possible future scenario for the water injection (WI) application has been explored as an advanced strategy for modern GDI engines. The aim is to verify whether the PWI (Port Water Injection) and DWI (Direct Water Injection) architectures can replace current fuel enrichment strategies to limit turbine inlet temperatures (TiT) and knock engine attitude. In this way, it might be possible to extend the stoichiometric mixture condition over the entire engine map, meeting possible future restrictions in the use of AES (Auxiliary Emission Strategies) and future emission limitations. The research was first addressed through a comprehensive assessment of the state-of-the-art of the technology and the main effects of the chemical-physical water properties. Then, detailed chemical kinetics simulations were performed in order to compute the effects of WI on combustion development and auto-ignition. The latter represents an important methodology step for accurate numerical combustion simulations. The water injection was then analysed in detail for a PWI system, through an experimental campaign for macroscopic and microscopic injector characterization inside a test chamber. The collected data were used to perform a numerical validation of the spray models, obtaining an excellent matching in terms of particle size and droplet velocity distributions. Finally, a wide range of three-dimensional CFD simulations of a virtual high-bmep engine were realized and compared, exploring also different engine designs and water/fuel injection strategies under non-reacting and reacting flow conditions. According to the latter, it was found that thanks to the introduction of water, for both PWI and DWI systems, it could be possible to obtain an increase of the target performance and an optimization of the bsfc (Break Specific Fuel Consumption), lowering the engine knock risk at the same time, while the TiT target has been achieved hardly only for one DWI configuration.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Ricci, Matteo
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
water injection, PWI, DWI, GDI engine
Data di discussione
1 Aprile 2021

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