Management and routing algorithms for ad-hoc and sensor networks

Monti, Gabriele (2008) Management and routing algorithms for ad-hoc and sensor networks, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria elettronica, informatica e delle telecomunicazioni, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/928.
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Large scale wireless adhoc networks of computers, sensors, PDAs etc. (i.e. nodes) are revolutionizing connectivity and leading to a paradigm shift from centralized systems to highly distributed and dynamic environments. An example of adhoc networks are sensor networks, which are usually composed by small units able to sense and transmit to a sink elementary data which are successively processed by an external machine. Recent improvements in the memory and computational power of sensors, together with the reduction of energy consumptions, are rapidly changing the potential of such systems, moving the attention towards datacentric sensor networks. A plethora of routing and data management algorithms have been proposed for the network path discovery ranging from broadcasting/floodingbased approaches to those using global positioning systems (GPS). We studied WGrid, a novel decentralized infrastructure that organizes wireless devices in an adhoc manner, where each node has one or more virtual coordinates through which both message routing and data management occur without reliance on either flooding/broadcasting operations or GPS. The resulting adhoc network does not suffer from the deadend problem, which happens in geographicbased routing when a node is unable to locate a neighbor closer to the destination than itself. WGrid allow multidimensional data management capability since nodes' virtual coordinates can act as a distributed database without needing neither special implementation or reorganization. Any kind of data (both single and multidimensional) can be distributed, stored and managed. We will show how a location service can be easily implemented so that any search is reduced to a simple query, like for any other data type. WGrid has then been extended by adopting a replication methodology. We called the resulting algorithm WRGrid. Just like WGrid, WRGrid acts as a distributed database without needing neither special implementation nor reorganization and any kind of data can be distributed, stored and managed. We have evaluated the benefits of replication on data management, finding out, from experimental results, that it can halve the average number of hops in the network. The direct consequence of this fact are a significant improvement on energy consumption and a workload balancing among sensors (number of messages routed by each node). Finally, thanks to the replications, whose number can be arbitrarily chosen, the resulting sensor network can face sensors disconnections/connections, due to failures of sensors, without data loss. Another extension to {WGrid} is {W*Grid} which extends it by strongly improving network recovery performance from link and/or device failures that may happen due to crashes or battery exhaustion of devices or to temporary obstacles. W*Grid guarantees, by construction, at least two disjoint paths between each couple of nodes. This implies that the recovery in W*Grid occurs without broadcasting transmissions and guaranteeing robustness while drastically reducing the energy consumption. An extensive number of simulations shows the efficiency, robustness and traffic road of resulting networks under several scenarios of device density and of number of coordinates. Performance analysis have been compared to existent algorithms in order to validate the results.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Monti, Gabriele
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
ad hoc networks sensor networks routing algorithm
Data di discussione
7 Aprile 2008

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