Multiresolution spherical wavelet analysis in global seismic tomography

Carannante, Simona (2008) Multiresolution spherical wavelet analysis in global seismic tomography, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Geofisica, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/871.
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Every seismic event produces seismic waves which travel throughout the Earth. Seismology is the science of interpreting measurements to derive information about the structure of the Earth. Seismic tomography is the most powerful tool for determination of 3D structure of deep Earth's interiors. Tomographic models obtained at the global and regional scales are an underlying tool for determination of geodynamical state of the Earth, showing evident correlation with other geophysical and geological characteristics. The global tomographic images of the Earth can be written as a linear combinations of basis functions from a specifically chosen set, defining the model parameterization. A number of different parameterizations are commonly seen in literature: seismic velocities in the Earth have been expressed, for example, as combinations of spherical harmonics or by means of the simpler characteristic functions of discrete cells. With this work we are interested to focus our attention on this aspect, evaluating a new type of parameterization, performed by means of wavelet functions. It is known from the classical Fourier theory that a signal can be expressed as the sum of a, possibly infinite, series of sines and cosines. This sum is often referred as a Fourier expansion. The big disadvantage of a Fourier expansion is that it has only frequency resolution and no time resolution. The Wavelet Analysis (or Wavelet Transform) is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of Fourier analysis. The fundamental idea behind this innovative analysis is to study signal according to scale. Wavelets, in fact, are mathematical functions that cut up data into different frequency components, and then study each component with resolution matched to its scale, so they are especially useful in the analysis of non stationary process that contains multi-scale features, discontinuities and sharp strike. Wavelets are essentially used in two ways when they are applied in geophysical process or signals studies: 1) as a basis for representation or characterization of process; 2) as an integration kernel for analysis to extract information about the process. These two types of applications of wavelets in geophysical field, are object of study of this work. At the beginning we use the wavelets as basis to represent and resolve the Tomographic Inverse Problem. After a briefly introduction to seismic tomography theory, we assess the power of wavelet analysis in the representation of two different type of synthetic models; then we apply it to real data, obtaining surface wave phase velocity maps and evaluating its abilities by means of comparison with an other type of parametrization (i.e., block parametrization). For the second type of wavelet application we analyze the ability of Continuous Wavelet Transform in the spectral analysis, starting again with some synthetic tests to evaluate its sensibility and capability and then apply the same analysis to real data to obtain Local Correlation Maps between different model at same depth or between different profiles of the same model.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Carannante, Simona
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
global tomography wavelet transform local correlation
Data di discussione
20 Giugno 2008

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