An experimental and theoretical approach to correct for the scattered radiation in an X-ray computer tomography system for industrial applications

Miceli, Alice (2008) An experimental and theoretical approach to correct for the scattered radiation in an X-ray computer tomography system for industrial applications, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Fisica, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/848.
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The main problem connected to cone beam computed tomography (CT) systems for industrial applications employing 450 kV X-ray tubes is the high amount of scattered radiation which is added to the primary radiation (signal). This stray radiation leads to a significant degradation of the image quality. A better understanding of the scattering and methods to reduce its effects are therefore necessary to improve the image quality. Several studies have been carried out in the medical field at lower energies, whereas studies in industrial CT, especially for energies up to 450 kV, are lacking. Moreover, the studies reported in literature do not consider the scattered radiation generated by the CT system structure and the walls of the X-ray room (environmental scatter). In order to investigate the scattering on CT projections a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo (MC) model was developed. The model, which has been validated against experimental data, has enabled the calculation of the scattering including the environmental scatter, the optimization of an anti-scatter grid suitable for the CT system, and the optimization of the hardware components of the CT system. The investigation of multiple scattering in the CT projections showed that its contribution is 2.3 times the one of primary radiation for certain objects. The results of the environmental scatter showed that it is the major component of the scattering for aluminum box objects of front size 70 x 70 mm2 and that it strongly depends on the thickness of the object and therefore on the projection. For that reason, its correction is one of the key factors for achieving high quality images. The anti-scatter grid optimized by means of the developed MC model was found to reduce the scatter-toprimary ratio in the reconstructed images by 20 %. The object and environmental scatter calculated by means of the simulation were used to improve the scatter correction algorithm which could be patented by Empa. The results showed that the cupping effect in the corrected image is strongly reduced. The developed CT simulation is a powerful tool to optimize the design of the CT system and to evaluate the contribution of the scattered radiation to the image. Besides, it has offered a basis for a new scatter correction approach by which it has been possible to achieve images with the same spatial resolution as state-of-the-art well collimated fan-beam CT with a gain in the reconstruction time of a factor 10. This result has a high economic impact in non-destructive testing and evaluation, and reverse engineering.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Miceli, Alice
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
monte carlo simulation cone beam computed tomography geant4 scatter x-ray spectra
Data di discussione
12 Giugno 2008

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