Approccio modellistico del sistema di controllo motorio nella malattia di parkinson

Baston, Chiara (2015) Approccio modellistico del sistema di controllo motorio nella malattia di parkinson, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Bioingegneria, 27 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/7147.
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Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder due to the death of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. The process that leads to these neural alterations is still unknown. Parkinson’s disease affects most of all the motor sphere, with a wide array of impairment such as bradykinesia, akinesia, tremor, postural instability and singular phenomena such as freezing of gait. Moreover, in the last few years the fact that the degeneration in the basal ganglia circuitry induces not only motor but also cognitive alterations, not necessarily implicating dementia, and that dopamine loss induces also further implications due to dopamine-driven synaptic plasticity got more attention. At the present moment, no neuroprotective treatment is available, and even if dopamine-replacement therapies as well as electrical deep brain stimulation are able to improve the life conditions of the patients, they often present side effects on the long term, and cannot recover the neural loss, which instead continues to advance. In the present thesis both motor and cognitive aspects of Parkinson’s disease and basal ganglia circuitry were investigated, at first focusing on Parkinson’s disease sensory and balance issues by means of a new instrumented method based on inertial sensor to provide further information about postural control and postural strategies used to attain balance, then applying this newly developed approach to assess balance control in mild and severe patients, both ON and OFF levodopa replacement. Given the inability of levodopa to recover balance issues and the new physiological findings than underline the importance in Parkinson’s disease of non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters, it was therefore developed an original computational model focusing on acetylcholine, the most promising neurotransmitter according to physiology, and its role in synaptic plasticity. The rationale of this thesis is that a multidisciplinary approach could gain insight into Parkinson’s disease features still unresolved.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Baston, Chiara
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze e ingegneria dell'informazione
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Parkinson’s disease; Basal Ganglia; Dinamic posture; Postural strategy; Sesory Organizaton Test; Levodopa; Neurocomputational model; Synaptic plasticity; Hebbian learning; Reinforcement learning; Dopamine; Cholinergic interneurons
Data di discussione
8 Maggio 2015

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