Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy. Population based pharmaco-epidemiological study on prescription patterns, pregnancy outcome and foetal health

Mostacci, Barbara (2015) Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy. Population based pharmaco-epidemiological study on prescription patterns, pregnancy outcome and foetal health, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze mediche specialistiche, 27 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/7105.
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Aims of the study: To assess the prevalence of Antiepileptic Drug (AED) exposure in pregnant women with or without epilepsy and the comparative risk of terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), spontaneous abortions, stillbirth, major congenital malformations (MCMs) and foetal growth retardation (FGR) following intrauterine AED exposure in the Emilia Romagna region (RER), Northern Italy (4 million inhabitants). Methods: Data were obtained from official regional registries: Certificate of Delivery Assistance, Hospital Discharge Card, reimbursed prescription databases and Registry of Congenital Malformations. We identified all the deliveries, hospitalized abortions and MCMs occurred between January 2009 and December 2011. Results: We identified 145,243 pregnancies: 111,284 deliveries (112,845 live births and 279 stillbirths), 16408 spontaneous abortions and 17551 TOPs. Six hundred and eleven pregnancies (0.42% 95% Cl: 0.39-0.46) were exposed to AEDs. Twenty-one per cent of pregnancies ended in TOP in the AED group vs 12% in the non-exposed (OR:2.24; CI 1.41-3.56). The rate of spontaneous abortions and stillbirth was comparable in the two groups. Three hundred fifty-three babies (0.31%, 95% CI: 0.28-0.35) were exposed to AEDs during the first trimester. The rate of MCMs was 2.3% in the AED group (2.2% in babies exposed to monotherapy and 3.1% in babies exposed to polytherapy) vs 2.0% in the non-exposed. The risk of FGR was 12.7 % in the exposed group compared to 10% in the non-exposed. Discussion and Conclusion: The prevalence of AED exposure in pregnancy in the RER was 0.42%. The rate of MCMs in children exposed to AEDs in utero was almost superimposable to the one of the non-exposed, however polytherapy carried a slightly increased risk . The rate of TOPs was significantly higher in the exposed women. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this high rate reflects a higher rate of MCMs detected prenatally or other more elusive reasons.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Mostacci, Barbara
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze mediche e chirurgiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
antiepileptic drugs; epilepsy; pregnancy; congenital malformations; congenital anomalies; abortion; foetal growth retardation; prescription patterns.
Data di discussione
17 Aprile 2015

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