Biomimetica per l'ingegneria tissutale dell'osso

Devescovi, Valentina (2008) Biomimetica per l'ingegneria tissutale dell'osso, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Biotecnologie mediche, 20 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/705.
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Reconstruction of bone is needed for high bone loss due to congenital deformities, trauma or neoplastic diseases. Commonly, orthopaedic surgical treatments are autologus or allogenic bone implant or prosthetic implant. A choice to the traditional approaches could be represented by tissue engineering that use cells (and/or their products) and innovative biomaterials to perform bone substitutes biologically active as an alternative to artificial devices. In the last years, there was a wide improvement in biology on stem cells potential research and in biomedical engineering through development of new biomaterials designed to resemble the physiological tissues. Tissue engineering strategies and smart materials aim together to stimulate in vivo bone regeneration. This approaches drive at restore not only structure integrity and/or function of the original tissue, but also to induce new tissue deposition in situ. An intelligent bone substitute is now designed like not only a scaffold but also as carrier of regeneration biomolecular signals. Biomimetics has helped to project new tissue engineered devices to simulate the physiological substrates architecture, such extracellular matrix (ECM), and molecular signals that drive the integration at the interface between pre-existing tissue and scaffold. Biomimetic strategies want to increase the material surface biological activity with physical modifications (topography) o chemical ones (adhesive peptides), to improve cell adhesion to material surface and possibly scaffold colonization. This study evaluated the effects of biomimetic modifications of surgical materials surface, as poly-caprolattone (PCL) and titanium on bone stem cells behaviour in a marrow experimental model in vitro. Two biomimetic strategies were analyzed; ione beam irradiation, that changes the surface roughness at the nanoscale, and surface functionalization with specific adhesive peptides or Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs). These new concept could be a mean to improve the early (cell adhesion, spreading..) and late phases (osteoblast differentiation) of cell/substrate interactions.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Devescovi, Valentina
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
ingegneria tissutale biomimetica
Data di discussione
15 Maggio 2008

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