Bioremediation of PCB-contaminated marine sediments: From identification of indigenous dehalorespirers to enhancement of microbial reductive dechlorination

Nuzzo, Andrea (2015) Bioremediation of PCB-contaminated marine sediments: From identification of indigenous dehalorespirers to enhancement of microbial reductive dechlorination, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze biochimiche e biotecnologiche, 27 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/6952.
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Marine sediments are the main accumulation reservoir of organic recalcitrant pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the anoxic conditions typical of these sediments, anaerobic bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi are able to attack these compounds in a process called microbial reductive dechlorination. Such activity and members of this phylum were detected in PCB-impacted sediments of the Venice Lagoon. The aim of this work was to investigate microbial reductive dechlorination and design bioremediation approaches for marine sediments of the area. Three out of six sediment cultures from different sampling areas exhibited dechlorination activities in the same conditions of the site and two phylotypes (VLD-1 and VLD-2) were detected and correlated to this metabolism. Biostimulation was tested on enriched dechlorinating sediment cultures from the same site using five different electron donors, of which lactate was the best biostimulating agent; complementation of microbial and chemical dechlorination catalyzed by biogenic zerovalent Pd nanoparticles was not effective due to sulfide poisoning of the catalyst. A new biosurfactant-producing strain of Shewanella frigidimarina was concomitantly obtained from hydrocarbon-degrading marine cultures and selected because of the low toxicity of its product. All these findings were then exploited to develop bioremediation lab-scale tests in shaken reactors and static microcosms on real sediments and water of the Venice lagoon, testing i) a bioaugmentation approach, with a selected enriched sediment culture from the same area, ii) a biostimulation approach with lactate as electron donor, iii) a bioavailability enhancement with the supplementation of the newly-discovered biosurfactant, and iv) all possible combinations of the afore-mentioned approaches. The best bioremediation approach resulted to be a combination of bioaugmentation and bioremediation and it could be a starting point to design bioremediation process for actual marine sediments of the Venice Lagoon area.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Nuzzo, Andrea
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze biologiche, biomediche e biotecnologiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Microbial reductive dechlorination, Marine sediments, Venice Lagoon, Dehalococcoidia, dechlorinating microorganism, biostimulation, electron donors, Bio-Pd NPs, bioaugmentation, biosurfactants, bioremediation.
Data di discussione
13 Aprile 2015

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