Bioconjugation and synthetic approach towards enantioenriched gem-difluoromethylene compounds through carbenium ions

Saulnier, Steve (2014) Bioconjugation and synthetic approach towards enantioenriched gem-difluoromethylene compounds through carbenium ions, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Chimica, 26 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/6577.
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Bioconjugation of peptides and asymmetric synthesis of gem-difluoromethylene compounds are areas of the modern organic chemistry for which mild and selective methods continue to be developed. This thesis reports new methodologies for these two areas based on the use of stabilized carbenium ions. The reaction that makes the bioconjugation of peptides possible takes place via the direct nucleophilic substitution of alcohols and is driven by the spontaneous formation of stabilized carbenium ions in water. By reacting with the thiol group of cysteine in very mild conditions and with a high selectivity, these carbenium ions allow the site-specific ligation of polypeptides containing cysteine and their covalent derivatization with functionalized probes. The ligation of the indole ring of tryptophan, an emerging target in bioconjugation, is also shown and takes place in the same conditions. The second area investigated is the challenging access to optically active gem-difluoromethylene compounds. We describe a methodology relying on the synthesis of enantioenriched 1,3-benzodithioles intermediates that are shown to be precursors of the corresponding gem-difluoromethylene analogues by oxidative desulfurization-fluorination. This synthesis takes advantage of the highly enantioselective organocatalytic α-alkylation of aldehydes with the benzodithiolylium ion and of the wide possibilities of synthetic transformations offered by the 1,3-benzodithiole group. This approach allows the asymmetric access to complex gem-difluoromethylene compounds through a late-stage fluorination step, thus avoiding the use of fluorinated building blocks.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Saulnier, Steve
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze chimiche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
Bioconjugation, peptide ligation, aymmetric synthesis, organocatalysis, fluorine chemistry, carbocations
Data di discussione
15 Aprile 2014

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