Fusarium species responsible for mycotoxin production in wheat crop: involvement in food safety

Alkadri, Dima (2012) Fusarium species responsible for mycotoxin production in wheat crop: involvement in food safety, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze agroambientali, 24 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/4884.
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Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a worldwide cereal disease responsible of significant yield reduction, inferior grain quality, and mycotoxin accumulation. Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum are the prevalent causal agents. FHB has been endemic in Italy since 1995, while there are no records about its presence in Syria. Forty-eight and forty-six wheat kernel samples were collected from different localities and analyzed for fungal presence and mycotoxin contamination. Fusarium strains were identified morphologically but the molecular confirmation was performed only for some species. Further differentiation of the chemotypes for trichothecene synthesis by F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains was conducted by PCR assays. Fusarium spp. were present in 62.5% of Syrian samples. 3Acetyl-Deoxynivalenol and nivalenol chemotypes were found in F. culmorum whilst all F. graminearum strains belonged to NIV chemotype. Italian samples were infected with Fusarium spp for 67.4%. 15Ac-DON was the prevalent chemotype in F. graminearum, while 3Ac-DON chemotype was detected in F. culmorum. The 60 Syrian Fusarium strains tested for mycotoxin production by HPLC-MS/MS have shown the prevalence of zearalenone while the emerging mycotoxins were almost absent. The analysis of the different Syrian and Italian samples of wheat kernels for their mycotoxin content showed that Syrian kernels were mainly contaminated with storage mycotoxins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin whilst Italian grains with mainly Fusarium mycotoxins. The aggressiveness of several Syrian F. culmorum isolates was estimated using three different assays: floret inoculation in growth chamber, ear inoculation in the field and a validated new Petri-dish test. The study of the behaviour of different Syrian wheat cultivars, grown under different conditions, has revealed that Jory is a FHB Syrian tolerant cultivar. This is the first study in Syria on Fusarium spp. associated to FHB, Fusarium mycotoxin producers and grain quality.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Alkadri, Dima
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze agrarie
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
wheat, FHB, Fusarium, PCR, chemotype, mycotoxins, HPLC-MS/MS, aggressiveness, Petri-dish test, inoculation, cultivars, resistance.
Data di discussione
14 Giugno 2012

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