New materials for electrochemiluminescence

Zanarini, Simone (2007) New materials for electrochemiluminescence, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze chimiche e chimica industriale: progetto n. 1 "Scienze chimiche", 19 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/460.
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The study of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) involves photophysical and electrochemical aspects. Excited states are populated by an electrical stimulus. The most important applications are in the diagnostic field where a number of different biologically-relevant molecules (e.g. proteins and nucleic acids) can be recognized and quantified with a sensitivity and specificity previously not reachable. As a matter of fact the electrochemistry, differently to the classic techniques as fluorescence and chemiluminescence, allows to control the excited state generation spatially and temporally. The two research visits into A. J. Bard electrochemistry laboratories were priceless. Dr. Bard has been one of ECL pioneers, the first to introduce the technique and the one who discovered in 1972 the surprising emission of Ru(bpy)3 2+. I consider necessary to thank by now my supervisors Massimo and Francesco for their help and for giving me the great opportunity to know this unique science man that made me feel enthusiastic. I will never be grateful enough… Considering that the experimental techniques of ECL did not changed significantly in these last years the most convenient research direction has been the developing of materials with new or improved properties. In Chapter I the basics concepts and mechanisms of ECL are introduced so that the successive experiments can be easily understood. In the final paragraph the scopes of the thesis are briefly described. In Chapter II by starting from ECL experimental apparatus of Dr. Bard’s laboratories the design, assembly and preliminary tests of the new Bologna instrument are carefully described. The instrument assembly required to work hard but resulted in the introduction of the new technique in our labs by allowing the continuation of the ECL studies began in Texas. In Chapter III are described the results of electrochemical and ECL studies performed on new synthesized Ru(II) complexes containing tetrazolate based ligands. ECL emission has been investigated in solution and in solid thin films. The effect of the chemical protonation of the tetrazolate ring on ECL emission has been also investigated evidencing the possibility of a catalytic effect (generation of molecular hydrogen) of one of the complexes in organic media. Finally, after a series of preliminary studies on ECL emission in acqueous buffers, the direct interaction with calf thymus DNA of some complexes has been tested by ECL and photoluminescence (PL) titration. In Chapter IV different Ir(III) complexes have been characterized electrochemically and photophysically (ECL and PL). Some complexes were already well-known in literature for their high quantum efficiency whereas the remaining were new synthesized compounds containing tetrazolate based ligands analogous to those investigated in Chapt. III. During the tests on a halogenated complex was unexpectedly evidenced the possibility to follow the kinetics of an electro-induced chemical reaction by using ECL signal. In the last chapter (V) the possibility to use mono-use silicon chips electrodes as ECL analitycal devices is under investigation. The chapter begins by describing the chip structure and materials then a signal reproducibility study and geometry optimization is carried on by using two different complexes. In the following paragraphs is reported in detail the synthesis of an ECL label based on Ru(bpy)3 2+ and the chip functionalization by using a lipoic acid SAM and the same label. After some preliminary characterizations (mass spectroscopy TOF) has been demonstrated that by mean of a simple and fast ECL measurement it’s possible to confirm the presence of the coupling product SAM-label into the chip with a very high sensitivity. No signal was detected from the same system by using photoluminescence.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Zanarini, Simone
Dottorato di ricerca
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
ECL Complessi organometallici Elettrochimica Chip funzionalizzato
Data di discussione
14 Maggio 2007

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