Applicazioni cliniche e sperimentali dell’ecografia toracica in pneumologia: la diagnostica precoce delle patologie pleuropolmonari

Zanforlin, Alessandro (2012) Applicazioni cliniche e sperimentali dell’ecografia toracica in pneumologia: la diagnostica precoce delle patologie pleuropolmonari, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze mediche specialistiche: progetto n. 4 "Scienze pneumo-cardio-toraciche di interesse medico e chirurgico", 24 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/4505.
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Lung ultrasound use is increasing in respiratory medicine thanks to its development in the latest years. Actually it allows to study diseases of the chest wall (traumas, infections, neoplasms), diaphragm (paralysis, ipokinesis), pleura (effusions, pneumothorax, thickenings, neoplasms) and lung parenchyma (consolidations, interstitial syndromes, peripheral lesions). One of the most useful application of chest ultrasound is the evaluation of effusions. However, no standardized approach for ultrasound-guided thoracenthesis is available. Our study showed that our usual ultrasonographic landmark (“V-point”) could be a standard site to perform thoracenthesis: in 45 thoracenthesis no pneumothorax occurred, drainage was always successful at first attempt. Values of maximum thickness at V-point and drained fluid volume showed a significative correlation. Proteins concentration of ultrasound patterns of effusions (anechoic, ipoechoic, moving echoic spots, dense moving spots, hyperechoic) were compared to those of the macroscopic features of fluids showing connection between light-yellow fluid and echoic moving spots pattern and between ipoechoic/dense moving spots and cloudy-yellow/serum-haematic fluids. These observations suggest that ultrasound could predict chemical-physical features of effusions. Lung ultrasound provides useful information about many disease of the lung, but actually there is not useful in obstructive bronchial diseases. Analysing diaphragmatic kinetics using M-mode through transhepatic scan we described a similarity between diaphragm excursion during an expiratory forced maneuver and the volume/time curve of spirometry. This allowed us to identify the M-mode Index of Obstruction (MIO), an ultrasound-analogue of FEV1/VC. We observed MIO values of normal subjects (9) and obstructed patients (9) comparing the two groups. FEV1/VC and MIO showed a significant correlation suggesting that MIO may be affected by airways obstruction; MIO values were significatively different between normal and obstructed so that it could identify an obstructive syndrome. The data show that it is possible to suspect the presence of obstructive syndrome of the airways using ultrasonography of the diaphragm.

Tipologia del documento
Tesi di dottorato
Zanforlin, Alessandro
Dottorato di ricerca
Scuola di dottorato
Scienze mediche e chirurgiche cliniche
Settore disciplinare
Settore concorsuale
Parole chiave
ecografia toracica, versamenti pleurici, toracentesi, patologie ostruttive, cinetica diaframmatica
Data di discussione
2 Aprile 2012

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